Friedrich Wilhelm Carove, a German philosopher and publicist, born at Coblentz, June 20, 1789, died in Heidelberg, March 18, 1852. He was an advocate, held some judicial offices, was made doctor of philosophy by the university of Heidelberg, and officiated for a short time as professor at Breslau. He was one of the founders of the Heidelberg Burschenschaft, and participated in the famous Wartburg festival. He was afterward a member of the provisional German parliament of 1848. His most elaborate works are attacks on the Roman Catholic religion, and include Ueber die alleinseligmaclicnde Kirche (2 vols., Frankfort, 1826); Was heisst rdmisch-Jcatholische Kirche? (2d ed., Altenburg, 1847); Die BuchdrucTcer-hunst in Hirer weltgeschichtlichen Bedeutung (Siegen, 1843); and Ueber das sogenannte germanische und sogenannte christliche Staats-princip (1843).
Friedrich Wilhelm Gubitz, a German author, born in Leipsic, Feb. 27, 1780, died June 5, 1870. He studied theology, worked as a type founder, printer, and engraver, became professor of wood engraving at the Berlin academy of fine arts in 1805, and afterward engaged also in bookselling. His principal works are Gedichte (2 vols., Berlin, 1859), Wirklichkeit und Phantasie (4 vols., 1802), and Erlebnisse (3 vols., 1868-'9). His most popular play is Der Kaiser und die Mullerin. As a theatrical critic and the founder of several periodicals devoted to dramatic literature, he contributed much to the improvement of the stage. His Deutscher Volkskalender, which ho edited for many years, became exceedingly popular, and found numerous imitations.
Friedricli August Berthold Mtzsch, a German theologian, born in Bonn, Feb. 19, 1832. He taught at a gymnasium in Berlin from 1857 to 1868, when he became professor of theology in the university of Giessen. His principal works are: Das System des Bo'ethhis (1860); Angus-ail's Lelire torn, Wunder (1805); and Grund-riss der cliristliclien DogmengescMchte (3 vols., 1870 et seq.).
Friedricli Preller, a German painter, born in Eisenach, April 25, 1804. He studied in Weimar, Dresden, Antwerp, and Italy, and became professor at Weimar in 1831. His principal works are his frescoes and cartoons illustrative of the Odyssey at Leipsic and Weimar, each including 40 designs, which were published at Leipsic in 1872 with the translation of Voss. His other productions include " Calypso," " Leucothea," "Nausicaa," historical landscapes, and marine pieces.
Friedrieh Christian Diez, a German philologist, born in Giessen, March 15, 1794. He studied philology at Giessen and Gottingen, and in 1823 became professor at Bonn. He is the author of Altspanische Romanzen (Berlin, 1821); Beitrage zur Kenntniss der romanischen Poesie (Berlin, 1825), republished in French under the title of Essai sur les cours d' amour (Paris, 1842); Die Poesie der Troubadours (1826); and Leben und Wirken der Troubadours (1829). Though these works were rapidly translated into French and English, he owes his reputation mainly to his Grammatik der romanischen Sprachen (3 vols., Bonn, 1836-42), and Etymologisches Worter-buch der romanischen Sprachen (Bonn, 1853), translated into English by T. 0. Donkin (London, 1864).