Fritz Reuter, a German novelist, born at Stavenhagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Nov. 7, 1810, died in Eisenach, July 12, 1874. He studied at Jena, where he joined the Burschen-schaften, and was in 1834 sentenced to death, but reprieved after being imprisoned seven years. He was afterward a teacher at Trep-tow, and acquired celebrity as a writer of works in Platt-Deutsch (complete ed., 12 vols., Wismar, 1863-6). A collection of his posthumous works was commenced at Wismar in 1875. - See Fritz Renter und seine Gedichte, by O. Glogau (Berlin, 1875).
Gabor Dobrentei, a Hungarian author, born at Nagy-Szollos in 1786, died in 1851. He studied at Wittenberg and Leipsic, and in 1810 established the " Transylvanian Museum," a periodical which exercised considerable influence upon the Hungarian literature of the period. In 1820 he removed to Pesth, and in 1827 was one of 22 savants invited to assemble at Buda to devise a plan and constitution for the Hungarian academy. Of the great work of his life, the "Ancient Monuments of the Hungarian Language," four volumes were published by him and a fifth was left nearly completed. His poems, which consist of odes, epigrams, and elegies, have been translated into several languages. He translated some of Shakespeare's plays, Moliere's Avare, and several tragedies of Schiller into Hungarian.
Gabriel Gnstav Valentin, a German physiologist, of Jewish parentage, born in Breslau, July 8, 1810. He took his degree in medicine at Breslau in 1832, and in 1836 became professor of physiology at Bern. His works include Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen (2 vols., Brunswick, 1845; 2d ed., 1847-'50); Grundriss der Physiologie des Menschen (1846; 4th enlarged ed., 1855); and Versuch einer physiologischen Pathologie des Blutes und der übrigen Körpersafte (Leipsic, 1866).
Gabriel Gottfried Bredow, a German historian, born in Berlin, Dec. 14, 1773, died in Breslau, Sept. 5, 1814. He was a graduate of Halle, forsook theology to devote himself to the study of the geography and astronomy of the ancients, on which he published several works, and was professor in different institutions, and finally in the university of Breslau. His historical works met with remarkable success, especially the Merhwurdige Begebenhei-ten am der allgemeinen Weltgeschichte, and the Umstandliche Erzahlung der merhwurdig-sten Begebenheiten aus der allgemeinen Weltgeschichte; the former passed, between 1804 and 1852, through 26 editions, and the latter through 13.
Gabriel Masse, a French jurist, born in Poitiers in 1807. He was called to the bar in Paris in 1833, and in 1868 became councillor of the court of cassation, and also one of the chief editors of the Iiecueil des Arrets. In 1874 he succeeded Odilon Barrot in the academy of moral and political sciences. With Do Villeneuve he has published Dictionnaire du contentieux commercial (2 vols., Paris, 1839-'45; 2d ed., 1851), and is the sole author of Le droit commercial dans ses rapports avec le droit des gens et le droit civil (6 vols., 1844-'8; 2d ed., revised and enlarged, 4 vols., 1861-3). With Charles Verge he translated from the German into French with annotations, under the title Le droit cixil francais, the Handbuch des franzbsischen Ckilrechts, by Karl Salomo Zacharia von Lingenthal (5 vols., Paris, 1854-9).