Gerard Yan Swieten, a Dutch physician, born in Leyden, May 7, 1700, died in Schonbrunn, Austria, June 18, 1772. He was a favorite pupil of Boerhaave, and after a few years' practice became professor of medicine at Leyden; but on account of his adherence to the Roman Catholic faith he was compelled to resign. In 1745 he went to Vienna as physician-in-chief to the empress Maria Theresa, and professor of medicine and anatomy; and he held several other important offices there. His great medical work, Commentarii in H. Boerhaavii Apho-rismos de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morois (5 vols. 4to, Leyden, 1741-72), was translated into German, English, and French.
Gerhard Friedrich Muller, a Russian historian, born at Herford, Westphalia, Oct. 18, 1705, died in Moscow in October, 1783. He studied at Leipsic, became in 1725 a teacher in St. Petersburg, and in 1730 was appointed professor of history. In 1733 he accompanied Gmelin and De Lisle de la Croyere to Siberia, and returned in February, 1743, having spent the interval in studying the geography and antiquities of that country. In 1747 he was appointed historiographer of the Russian empire, in 1754 secretary of the academy of sciences, in 1766 keeper of the archives at Moscow, and afterward councillor of state. He is best known by his Sammlung Russischer Geschichte (9 vols., 1732-64). His other writings include Histoire des voyages et decouvertcs des Russes (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1766). He has been called the father of Russian history, wrote French, Latin, Russian, and German with equal ease, and was the first to found a literary journal in the Russian language.
Geronimo Bermudez, a Spanish poet, born in Galicia about 1530, died about 1589. He belonged to the order of St. Dominic, and was professor of theology at Salamanca. He published at Madrid in 1577, under the name of Antonio de Silva, two tragedies upon the subject of Inez de Castro, Nise Lastimosa and Nise Laureada. The former is much the finer poem, and has passages of great poetical merit. He also published a poem originally written in Latin, and translated by himself into Spanish, entitled La Hesperoida, of which the duke of Alva was the hero.
GeróNimo Zurita, a Spanish historian, born in Saragossa in 1512, died there about 1580. He was the son of the favorite physician of Ferdinand the Catholic, was educated at Alcala, was chief magistrate of several towns, in 1543 became a member of the supreme council of Castile, in 1547 historiographer of Aragon, and subsequently private secretary to the king and chief of the correspondence of the inquisition. He obtained from the government an order authorizing him to examine all public archives and libraries, and armed with this commission he traversed Spain, Sicily, and Italy. His Anales de la corona de Aragon (6 vols, fol., Saragossa, 1562-79; completed in 6 vols, fol., 1610, and in 7 vols., 1669) embraces the period extending from the rise of the kingdom after the Arabian conquest to the death of Ferdinand the Catholic.