Gertrndis Gomes De Avellaneda, a Spanish poetess and novelist, born at Puerto Principe, Cuba, in 1816, died in Seville in June, 1864. Her father was a Spanish naval officer, after whose death she went to Spain, where her first drama, Leoncia, was favorably received at Madrid in 1840. In 1845 she was crowned with laurel in the presence of the court and received a prize for a poem exalting the clemency of the queen. In 1846 she married Pedro Sabador, a young Spanish politician, who died in the same year. She afterward led a secluded life at Madrid and Seville. Her 2 vols, of lyrical poetry (2d ed., Mexico, 1852), her 16 dramas, and her 8 vols. of prose writings secured for her a high reputation.
Giacomo Barozzio Da Vignola, an Italian architect, born at Vignola, in Modena, in 1507, died in Rome in 1573. He studied painting with the Passarotti at Bologna, but subsequently turned his attention to architecture, which he studied at Rome. After spending two years in France with Primaticcio, he went to Bologna, where he constructed several fine palaces and public buildings, and finally settled in Rome. He was appointed papal architect by Julius III. in 1550, and designed the church of the Jesuits in Rome, the Caparola palace, and the two lateral cupolas of St. Peter's, of which he became architect after the death of Michel Angelo. He also furnished the plans for the reconstruction of the palace of the Escurial in Spain. Vignola's works on "The Five Orders of Architecture" and "Practical Perspective" are still among the best authorities on those subjects.
Giadalquivir , (anc. Boetis), a river of Spain, which rises near the S. E. corner of the province of Jaen, flows first X. E. and N. W. and then S. W. through Andalusia, passing Andujar, Villafranca, Cordova, and Seville, and falls into the Atlantic at San Lucar de Barrameda, 14 m. N. of Cadiz. It is more than 250 m. long, and is navigable for nearly 70 m. Its principal tributaries are the Guadalimar, Jan-dula, and Guadiato on the right, and the Gua-diana Menor, Guadajoz, and Jenil on the left. The Guadalquivir drains an area of about 20,-000 sq. m.
Giambattista Martini, an Italian composer, born in Bologna, April 25, 1706, died there, Aug. 4, 1784. He entered the order of Franciscans, visited Asia, and on his return was appointed chapelmaster to a Franciscan convent in Bologna. He was an industrious composer of church music, and published two musical treatises, an "Essay on Counterpoint" and a, " History of Music " (3 vols. 4to, 1757-'81).
Giambattista Ramusio, an Italian author, born in Treviso in 1485, died in Padua, July 10, 1557. He was secretary of the council of ten in Venice, travelled as ambassador through France, Switzerland, and Italy, and was author of Raccolta di navigazioni e viaggi (3 vols., 1550-'59), a collection of voyages and travels in ancient and modern times. He left materials for a fourth volume, but they were destroyed by fire in 1557. The best edition is that of 1606.