Gil Vicente

Gil Vicente, a Portuguese dramatist, born about 1470, died in 1557 (according to some, about 1540). He belonged to the nobility, and studied law at Lisbon. His first work was a monologue written in 1502 on occasion of the birth of Prince John, afterward John III., which was recited before the royal family, and pleased the queen mother so much that she requested the author to repeat it at Christmas, adapting it to the birth of the Saviour. From this time he continued to produce dramatic works at the court, and he has been called the Plautus of Portugal and the father of the Portuguese drama. He wrote 42 pieces, consisting of autos or miracle plays, comedies, tragi-comedies, and farces, of which 10 were written wholly and 15 partly in Castilian. His works were edited by his son Luiz (Lisbon, 1561), and in an edition of 1585 much was suppressed by the inquisition. A complete new edition has been issued by Barreto Feio and Monteiro (3 vols., Hamburg, 1834).

Gilbert Breschet

Gilbert Breschet, a French physician, born at Clermont-Ferrand, July 7, 1784, died in Paris, May 10, 1845. He was professor of anatomy in the school of medicine at Paris, attending surgeon to the Hotel Dieu, and member of the academy of sciences. He wrote much upon various anatomical, physiological, and surgical subjects; his most valuable work is that upon the spinal veins, published in 1819 and enriched with carefully executed plates.

Gilbert White

Gilbert White, an English naturalist, born at Selborne, Hampshire, July 18,1720, died in Oxford, June 26, 1793. He was educated at Oxford, and was made senior proctor of the university in 1752. At an early period of his life he retired to his native village, where he devoted himself to natural history. His "Natural History of Selborne " (4to, 1789; last ed., with notes by Frank Buckland, London, 1875) is one of the English classics. After his death was published " A Naturalist's Calendar, with Observations in various Branches of Natural History," edited from his papers by Dr. Aikin (1795). A complete edition of his works was published by W. Markwick (2 vols. 8vo, 1802), and in 1876 ten of his unpublished letters were edited by J. E. Harting.

Gillcs Panl Cauvet

Gillcs Panl Cauvet, a French sculptor and architect, born at Aix, Provence. April 17, 1731, died in Paris, Nov. 15, 1788. He belonged to a rich family and was destined for the law, but indulging his taste for artistic pursuits against the wishes of his parents, he fled to Paris, where he eventually acquired professional eminence. He published in 1777 Recueil d'ornaments a l'usage des jeunes artistes qui se destinent d la decoration des odtiments.

Gilles De Laval Retz

Gilles De Laval Retz, seigneur de, marshal of France, born about 1396, put to death in 1440. Under Charles VII. he distinguished himself in the war against the English, and fought at the side of the maid of Orleans. Money troubles obliged him to retire to his castle near Nantes. In consequence of rumors of shameful deeds practised by him, the bishop of Nantes summoned him to be tried before a mixed commission. It was proved that during 14 years the seigneur de Retz had enticed into his castle several hundred children, had practised magic, and had paid worship to the devil, in which his victims were obliged to take part as priests and priestesses. He was handed over to the civil power, and by a decree of Oct. 25, 1440, he was condemned to the stake, but, as a noble, was strangled.