Giovanni Bettino Cignaroli, an Italian painter, born near Verona in 1706, died in 1772. His best works are in the cathedrals of Pisa, Bergamo, Mantua, and in the churches of his native city and of Ferrara. Chief among them are the "Flight into Egypt," the "Holy Trinity," the "Descent from the Cross," the "Transfiguration," and the "Death of St. Joseph," in style modelled on the works of Correggio and Guido. He wrote with taste on various subjects.
Giovanni Bona, a Roman cardinal, born in Mondovi, Piedmont, Oct. 10, 1609, died in Rome, Oct. 27, 1674. He was a collaborator in the Acta Sanctorum, the author of Res Li-turgicm, which is an authority on the service of mass, and of Be Principiis Vitm Christiana, of which French translations appeared in 1693 and 1728. An edition of his works appeared at Turin in 1747-'53, in 4 vols.
Giovanni Borgi, the founder of ragged schools, born in Rome about 1736, died about 1802. He was a poor mechanic, but was in the habit of taking home the vagrant children of the streets, clothing them, and apprenticing them to various trades. His zeal interested others in the work, and he obtained means to rent a suitable building and to pay the expense of teaching and providing for a large number of poor children. The institution outlived Borgi, and was greatly extended, Pius VII. becoming its principal protector.
Giovanni Carlo Maria Clari, an Italian composer, born in Pisa in 1669, died in the first half of the 18th century. He studied under Colonna, became a chapelmaster, and composed in 1685 an opera, Il savio delirante, which was favorably received at Bologna. He composed and arranged church music, whence he was called Abbate Clari, and acquired celebrity by his chamber duets and trios, published in 1720.
Giovanni Da Bologna, an Italian sculptor and architect, born at Douay in Flanders about 1524, died in Florence in 1608. He studied art when a youth at Rome and Florence, which last city he made his home. He surpassed all sculptors of his time except Michel Angelo, and few artists were charged with the execution of so many and such important works. His surname of Bologna seems to have been derived from the celebrated fountain in that city, designed by himself, of which the crowning colossal figure of Neptune is one of the wonders of art. At Florence, however, are to be found his finest works, such as the celebrated " Rape of the Sabine Women," a group in marble, and the equally celebrated bronze of Mercury.
Giovanni De Janua Balbi Or Jannensis (from his birthplace Genoa), a Dominican friar of the 13th century, author of a universal cyclopaedia or Catholicon (about 1286), which owes its celebrity principally to the fact that it became one of the earliest monuments of the art of printing. The original edition, Summa (/ram-maticalis valde Notabilis qum Catholicon nomi-natur, was printed at Mentz by Faust and Schoffer in 1460, and was reprinted at Augsburg in 1469 and 1472, at Nuremberg in 1483, at Venice in 1487, and at Lyons in 1520.