Giovanni Di Piano Carpini, an Italian Franciscan monk and traveller, born about 1220. In 1246 he was sent with a company of several other Franciscans on a mission to the great khan of Tartary, to convert him to Christianity if possible, or at least to induce him rather to employ his arms against the Saracens and Turks than against the Christians. Carpini travelled through Russia and along the shores of the Black sea, and finally reached the court of the Tartar monarch, in the region N. E. of the Caspian. He remained here a month or more, without apparently accomplishing much, and then set out on his return, which he effected safely, though not without much suffering. He wrote an account of his journey in Latin, an abstract of which was published in the "Voyages and Discoveries" of Hakluyt. He devoted the remainder of his life to preaching the gospel in Hungary, Bohemia, Norway, and Denmark, and died at an advanced age.
Giovanni Domenico Santorini, an Italian anatomist, born in Venice about 1680, died there, May 7, 1736. He studied medicine at Pisa, and practised in Venice, where he was prosector and professor of anatomy. He discovered and described two small cartilages, attached to the apices of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx, now known as the cartilages of Santori-ni. His works are: Opuscula Medica de Structura et Motu Fibroe; DeNutritione Animali; De Hoe-rnorrhoidibus; De Ca-tameniis, etc. (Venice, 1705); Observationes Anatomicoe (1724); Istoria d'un feto es-tratto delle parti de-retane (1727); Istruzione alle febbre (1734); and Anatomicoe Septemdecim Tabuloe, etc. (Parma, 1775).
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri. See Gueecino.
Giovanni Gaetano Bottari, an Italian prelate, born in Florence, Jan. 15, 1689, died in Rome, June 3, 1775. He was director of the grand-ducal press of Tuscany, professor of ecclesiastical history and controversy in the Sapienza, and subsequently keeper of the Vatican library. He was principal editor of the new edition of the Vocabulario delta Crusca and of the celebrated Vatican Virgil (1741).
Giovanni Giacomo Carissimi, an Italian composer, born in Venice near the close of the 16th century, died about 1674. He was for a number of years director of the pontifical chapel at Rome, and at his death left a large number of compositions, consisting mostly of oratorios, masses, and cantatas. The publication of his oratorios was commenced in 1872. We are indebted to him for orchestral accompaniments to sacred music, and for great improvements in the recitative. He was also one of the first to write cantatas. His melodies are distinguished by grace and spirit, and his harmony is effective. His style, perfected by his pupils Bononcini, Bassani, and Scarlatti, is considered the foundation of the music of the .18th century.
Giovanni Maria Lancisi, an Italian physician, born in Rome, Oct. 26, 1654, died there, Jan. 21, 1720. He abandoned the study of theology for the natural sciences, and at 18 graduated doctor in medicine and philosophy at the Sa-pienza college in Rome. In 1676 he was appointed assistant physician to one of the hospitals, and some time later was nominated to the chair of anatomy at the Sapienza, which he filled with great reputation for 13 years. Innocent XI in 1684 presented him with a can-onry. He filled various professional offices, and wrote a number of valuable works, chiefly relating to his favorite studies of anatomy, natural philosophy, and mathematics. A collection of them appeared in his lifetime (2 vols. 4to, Geneva, 1718), and a complete edition in folio was published at Venice in 1731).