Giovanni Prati, an Italian poet, born at Da-scirido, near Trent, Jan. 27,1805. He received his diploma as an advocate in Padua, but devoted himself to poetry. In 1862 he became a member of the Italian parliament. His Canti Urici and Canti per il popolo (3 vols., Milan, 1843) were very popular. Among his other works are Memorie e lacrime (1844), Passeg-giate solitarie (2 vols., 1847), Nuove poesie (Turin, 1856), and Ariberto (1860). Complete editions of his writings appeared at Florence in 1852, and at Milan in 1862.
Giovanni Rosini, an Italian author, born at Lucignano, Tuscany, June 24, 1776, died in Pisa, May 16, 1855. He became in 1803 professor of Italian literature at the university of Pisa. He prepared new editions of Guicciar-dini's Storia d'Italia (10 vols., 1819-'20), and of Tasso's works (33 vols., 1821-'32). He wrote the novels La monaca di Monza (3 vols., 1829) and Luisa Strozzi (4 vols., 1833), Storia della pittura italiana (2d ed., 7 vols., 1848-'52), and other works.
Giovanni Ruffini, an Italian novelist, born in Genoa about 1810. He and his brother Jacopo were fellow students of Mazzini at Genoa, and Giovanni cooperated with the latter in organizing at Marseilles the league known as la giovine Italia. In 1834, on the failure of the invasion of Savoy planned by Mazzini, Jacopo was executed, while Giovanni escaped, and lived chiefly in England till the amnesty of 1848, when for a short time he was Sardinian minister in Paris. In 1849 he returned to England, where he has since resided. He is married to an English lady, and writes English with remarkable fluency and elegance. He has published "Lorenzo Benoni, or Passages in the Life of an Italian," an autobiographical narrative (London, 1853); "The Paragreens' Visit to the Paris Exhibition " (1855); " Doctor Antonio" (1855); and "Lavinia" (1860).
Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina, an Italian jurist, born at Roggiano, Jan. 20, 1664, died in Rome, Jan. 6, 1718. Devoting himself to civil and canon law, he went to Rome in 1689, published several brief works on morals and literature, and in 1695, having collected 15 of his friends in his garden, formed the academy of the Arcadians. In 1699 he was appointed professor of civil law in the college of La Sapienza, and in 1703 of canon law. He soon after published his works on the "Origin of the Civil Law" and on the " Roman Empire." A schism took place in 1711 in the academy of the Arcadians, and Gravina and his friends withdrew and founded the Quirina academy. He was the adoptive father of Metastasio.
Girolamo Crescentiffl, a soprano singer, born near Urbino, Italy, about 1769, died at Naples in 1846. He was received with the utmost enthusiasm all over Europe, especially in Vienna. He was a favorite with Napoleon, who engaged him for his private chapel in Paris in 1806; but subsequently he returned to Naples, where he taught music, and published collections of exercises in musical vocalization.