Giuseppe Micali, an Italian archaeologist, born in Leghorn about 1776, died in Florence, March 28, 1844. He travelled extensively, and devoted himself to archaeological studies. His Italia avanti il dominio de"Romani (4 vols., Florence, 1810, with a map and 67 plates; new ed., 1831), won a prize, but incurred criticism, which induced the author to remodel it under the title Storia degli antichi popoll italiani (3 vols., 1832; 2d ed., Milan, 1836; enlarged ed., 4 vols., Florence, 1843 et seq.; translated into French by Baoul Rochette). It was followed by Monumenti antichi, a volume containing 120 plates (Florence, 1844).
Giuseppe Parini, an Italian poet, born at Bo-sisio, near Milan, May 22, 1729, died Aug. 15, 1799. He was of humble birth and occupation, but acquired fame in 1752 by his Pi-pano Eupilino, a volume of poems, and still more by his II giorno, a didactic and dramatic satire. His works were edited by Reina (6 vols., Milan, 1801-'4, and 2 vols., 1825).
Giuseppe Piazzi, an Italian astronomer, born at Ponte, in the Valtellina, July 16, 1746, died in Naples, July 22, 1826. He joined the order of the Theatins at Milan, became in 1770 professor of mathematics in Malta, next taught philosophy and mathematics at Ravenna, was a preacher at Cremona, and professor of dogmatic theology in Rome, where he was a friend of Chiaramonti, afterward Pius VII. In 1780 he became professor of astronomy in Palermo, where he subsequently established an observatory, and in 1817 was appointed general director of the new observatory at Naples. On Jan. 1, 1801, he discovered Ceres, the first of the asteroids. In 1803 he published Stel-larum Inerrantium Positioned, a catalogue of 6,748 stars, the results of the observations of ten years, and in 1814 a second catalogue embracing 7,646 stars. Among his other works is Lezioni elementari di astronomia (2 vols., Palermo, 1817).
Giuseppe Sarti, an Italian composer, born in Faenza, Dec. 28, 1729, died in Berlin, July 28, 1802. He studied counterpoint under Padre Martini, and his first opera, Pompeo in Armenia, was produced at Faenza in 1752. He was for a short time chapelmaster at Copenhagen, and in 1779 at Milan. About 1785 he became imperial chapelmaster and director of the conservatory in St. Petersburg. He remained in Russia till 1801, when he went to Berlin for his health. He composed operas and church music, and invented a machine to measure the vibrations of tones.
Giuseppe Saverio Poli, an Italian naturalist, born in Molfetta, Oct. 24,1746, died in Naples, April 7, 1825. He entered the army, and was appointed by Ferdinand I. in 1776 professor of military geography at Naples, became a fellow of the royal society of England while on a tour of inspection of the military schools of Europe, and on his return was appointed professor of experimental philosophy and director of the military academy at Naples. He was distinguished as a comparative anatomist and physiologist, but particularly for his knowledge of the character and habits of testacean mollusks. He published Testacea Utriusque Sicilies, (2 vols, fol., Parma, 1792-'5; vol. iii., 1826). He discovered many new genera and species, and the nervous system of the testacea, though he mistook its nature.