Goslar , a town of Hanover, Prussia, 2G m. S. E. of Hildesheim, on the Gose, at the base of the Rammelsberg; pop. in 1871, 8,923. Its most important public edifices are the town house, which was erected in the 15th century, the imperial palace, now in part a ruin, and the Gothic church, whose library contains a considerable number of Luther's manuscripts. In the vicinity are slate quarries, from which N. Germany is supplied with that material. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in mining and quarrying. It was founded about 920, was the residence of several German emperors, and was a free imperial city till 1801.
Gospel , (Sax. godspell, corresponding to the Gr. a joyful message), either the whole system of the doctrines of Christ, or one of the four histories of his life and teachings written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The extant spurious gospels, forming a part of the apocrypha of the New Testament, are the " History of Joseph the Carpenter," the " Gospel of the Infancy," the "Gospel of Thomas the Israelite," the "Protevangelion" of James, the " Gospel of the Nativity of Mary," and the "Gospel of Nicodemus, or Acts of Pilate." Many others, not extant, are mentioned by the church fathers. (See Apocrypha.)
Gosport , a seaport town of Hampshire, England, opposite Portsmouth, on the W. side of the entrance to the harbor of the latter; pop. in 1871, 7,366. It is situated on level ground and surrounded by fortifications, which form part of those of Portsmouth and Portsea. It contains two churches and four chapels for Protestants and one for Roman Catholics. The most conspicuous establishment is the royal Clarence victualling yard for supplying vessels.
Gosselies , a market town of Belgium, in the province of Hainaut, on the Brussels and Charleroi railway, 23 m. S. by E. of Brussels; pop. in 1800, 0,511. It has important manufactories of woollens, hats, steel ware, and leather, and near it are large coal mines. The battle fought near this place June 2(5, 1794, between the French and the Austrians, is known as the battle of Fleurus.
Gostaf Henrik Mellin, a Swedish author, born at Revolax, Finland, April 23, 1803. He studied theology at Upsal, and acquired celebrity by numerous historical novels, most of which have been translated into German. He is also the author of many historical and biographical works, including Faderlandets Hutoria, which has had several editions, and a history of Swedish literature (1864).
Gotham , a parish of Nottinghamshire, England, the Boeotian rusticity of whose inhabitants gained them the proverbial appellation of " the wise men of Gotham." The name Gotham was satirically applied by Washington Irving to the city of New York.
Gottfried Bidloo, a Dutch anatomist, born.in Amsterdam, March 12, 1649, died in Leyden in April, 1713. He was a surgeon in the army, professor at the Hague and at Leyden, and nearly eight years physician of William III. of England. Subsequently he returned to his chair at Leyden, teaching anatomy, surgery, and chemistry. His principal work, Anatomia Humani Corporis (Amsterdam, 1685; Utrecht, 1750), though inaccurate in some respects, was an important advance upon the science of the period. Cowper, the English anatomist, bought 300 copies of the plates of this work, and published them with alterations as his own at Oxford in 1693.