Grafenberg ,.See Priessnitz.
Gragnano , a town of S. Italy, in the province of Naples, at the foot of Monte Pendolo, 19 m. S. E. of Naples; pop. about 10,000. It is the seat of a bishop, and has manufactures of macaroni and a considerable trade in wine.
Graham ,.I. An extreme W. county of North Carolina, formed since the census of 1870 from Cherokee co., bounded N. E. by the Tennessee river, and separated from Tennessee by the Iron mountains; area, about 300 sq. m. The surface is mountainous; the soil of the valleys is fertile. Capital, Fort Montgomery. II. A N. W. unsettled county of Kansas; area, 900 sq. m. It is intersected by the South fork of Solomon river, and drained by Saline river.
Graham's Town , a town of Cape Colony, capital of the district of Albany, 22 m. N. N. W. of Bathurst, and 465 m. E. by N. of Cape Town; pop. about 8,000. It is pleasantly situated on an eminence surrounded by high grassy hills. The streets are wide; the dwellings provided with gardens well watered and stocked with fruit trees. There are several handsome churches, a public library, two banks, and a flourishing grammar school. It is the see of an Anglican and a Roman Catholic bishop.
Graidenz , a fortified town of Prussia, in the province of West Prussia, on the Vistula, 60 m. S. of Dantzic; pop. in 1871, 15,559. It has a Protestant and five Roman Catholic churches, a convent, a gymnasium, a normal school, and two hospitals. There are manufactories of cloth, tobacco, and carriages, several breweries and distilleries, a considerable trade in cloth and corn, some shipping, and four annual fairs. The fortress was built by Frederick the Great, and became famous in 1807 for its brave defence by Courbiere.
Grail , Holy. See Graal.
Grain , (Lat. granum, a seed), the smallest measure of weight in use, about equal to that of a kernel of wheat. A statute passed in England in 1266 ordained that 32 grains of wheat, taken from the middle of the ear and well dried, should make a pennyweight, 20 of which should make an ounce, 12 of which should make a pound. The pound, therefore, consisted then of 7,680 grains, but afterward of only 5,760, in consequence of the division of the pennyweight into 24 grains. The present troy pound is 5,760 grains, and the avoirdupois pound 7,000.
Grain Coast , a part of the coast of upper Guinea, W. Africa, between Capes Mesurado and Palmas, comprising a large part of the coast of Liberia. It receives its name from the cardamom, or grain of paradise, called otherwise Guinea grains and Malagueta pepper, which is exported. (See Liberia.)
Grainger , a N. E. county of Tennessee, bounded N. W. by Clinch river and S. E. by Holston river, here navigable by steamboats; area, about 330 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,421, of whom 1,030 were colored. The surface is hilly, Clinch mountain crossing the county from N. W. to S. E. The river bottoms are fertile, and the highlands are rich in iron and other ores. The chief productions in 1870 were 78,146 bushels of wheat, 353,260 of Indian corn, 86,005 of oats, 12,285 of Irish and 8,045 of sweet potatoes, and 709 tons of hay. There were 2,233 horses, 2,248 milch cows, 4,670 other cattle, 9,797 sheep, and 17,723 swine. Capital, Rutledge.