Graves , a S. W. county of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, and drained by Mayfield creek and Obion river; area, 515 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,398, of whom 2,329 were colored. It is traversed by the Paducah and Memphis railroad. The surface is level and the soil generally productive. The chief productions in 1870 were 96,453 bushels of wheat, 842,445 of Indian corn, 24,424 of oats, 14,952 of Irish and 24,259 of sweet potatoes, 158,380 lbs. of butter, 4,774,195 of tobacco, and 187 bales of cotton. There were 3,935 horses, 2,311 mules and asses, 3,681 milch cows, 4,404 other cattle, 13,870 sheep, and 31,570 swine; 1 woollen factory, and 2 wool-carding and cloth-dressing establishments. Capital, Mayfield.
Grave Creek ,.See Moundsville.
Gravelines , (Flem. Gravelinghe; Ger. Gra-velingen), a fortified seaport town of France, in the department of Le Nord, near the mouth of the Aa, 10 m. W. S. W. of Dunkirk; pop. in 1866, 6,510. It contains a handsome market place, a church built in the 16th century, and a modern town hall, and has an extensive coasting trade and active fisheries. Cheese, butter, and eggs are exported; sail cloth and linens are manufactured, and there is some ship building. The town was founded in 1160 by Count Thierry of Alsace and Flanders. A famous victory was achieved here by the Spaniards under Egmont over the French under the marshal de Thermes, July 13, 1558. It was annexed to France by the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659). Louis XIV. had new fortifications constructed, designed by Vauban.
Gravelotte , a village of Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, on the Moselle, 8 m. W. of Metz; pop. 700. Here on Aug. 18, 1870, the first and second German armies, commanded by Gen. Steinmetz and Prince Frederick Charles under King William in person, obtained a great victory over the French under Marshal Bazaine. The battle of Gravelotte decided the fate of Metz. It was probably the bloodiest and the most hotly contested of the war, the loss of the Germans being about 20,000 in killed and wounded, and that of the French, who occupied superior positions and acted on the defensive, about 13,000.
Gravesend , a municipal borough, town, and river port of Kent, England, on the right bank of the Thames, 21 m. E. by S. of London; pop. in 1871, 21,183. The principal public edifices are the town hall, parochial church (where Pocahontas is buried), literary institution, and theatre. Ship building is carried on to a considerable extent, but the chief trade arises from supplying outward-bound ships with stores and clothing. Gravesend is the limit of the port of London; inward-bound vessels stop hero for examination by the customs officers.
Gravina , a town of S. Italy, in the province and 36 m. S. W. of the city of Bari, on a river of the same name, an affluent of the Bradano; pop. about 14,000. it is the seat of a bishop, and has five churches and a gymnasium. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the Saracens in 975.