Guinand , a Swiss optician, born in the canton of Neufehatel about 1745, died in 1825. He was the son of a house carpenter, and constructed a telescope in imitation of one of great value in the possession of his employer, so like the model that it was difficult to decide which of the two was better. At 40 years of age he commenced the manufacture of lenses for telescopes.. Some of these coming under the observation of Fraunhofer, the well known instrument maker of Bavaria, he engaged the services of Guinand for a number of years, solely for his skill in this manufacture. In the latter part of his life Guinand was occupied in constructing telescopes of great size and power, every part of which was the work of his own hands. (See Class, and Lens.)


Guinea , an English gold coin, first struck in the reign of Charles II.. of gold which had been brought from the coast of Guinea, whence its name. Its value is 21 shillings, or about $5 12. Guineas have not been coined since 1817, when they were superseded by the sovereign, and have now become rare.

Guinea Grass

Guinea Grass , a name which, as well as Guinea corn, is applied in the southern states to sorghum cernuum, a grass closely related to broom corn; but instead of having an erect panicle like that, its flower clusters are nodding. Like many other plants that have been introduced into cultivation and abandoned when found valueless, this remains, where the climate is favorable to it, as a weed. It gives an acceptable forage in the West Indies and parts of Florida, where better grasses do not succeed.

Guinea Worm

Guinea Worm ,.See Extozoa, genus fila-ria, vol. vi., p. 670.

Guio Reni

See Guido Reni.


Guise , a town of France, in the department of Aisne, on the Oise, 23 m. N. of Laon; pop. in 1866, 5,099. It is a fortified place of the third class; has various manufactures and a phalanstery designed for 400 families. It is the birthplace of Camille Desmoulins. It is first mentioned in the 11th century. From it the dukes of Guise derived their title.


Guitar , (Gr. Guitar 0800214 Span, guitarra), a musical stringed instrument, chiefly used to accompany the voice. It was known to the Egyptians in a form somewhat similar to that in present use for more than 15 centuries before the Christian era, and was probably introduced into Europe in modern times by the Spaniards, who derived it from the Moors. The Spanish guitar consists of a hollow wooden body of a somewhat oval form, about 18 in. in length by 4 in depth, and of a neck of 16 in., having a finger board with 17 frets. The strings, six in number, generally tuned E, A, D, G, B, E, are distended along the instrument, passing over a bridge at the lower end of the body, and being regulated by pegs at the upper end of the neck. They are set in vibration by the fingers of the right hand, while the left is employed to produce the modulations of tone by pressing against the frets on the finger board.