Heinrich Moritz Chalybals, a German philosopher, born at PfafFroda, Saxony, July 3, 1790, died in Dresden, Sept. 22, 1862. He studied philology and philosophy, received the degree of D. D. from the Leipsic university in 1820, became teacher and professor in various places, and was from 1839 to 1802 professor of philosophy at the university of Kiel, with the exception of a brief period subsequent to the Schleswig-IIolstein war. This appointment was mainly due to the reputation of his Histo-rische Entwichelung der speculation Philoso-phie von Kant bis Hegel (Dresden, 1830; 5th ed., 1800; English translation by Talk, London, 1854). He wrote several other works, the most important of which was System, der spficv.lativen Ethih (2 vols., Leipsic, 1850), in which he defines ethics as the complete embodiment of absolute truth. His Philosophic und Christenthum (Kiel, 1853) and Fundamental-Philosophie (1801) were bis latest publications.
Heinrich Ritter, a German philosopher, born in Zerbst in 1791, died in Göttingen, Feb. 3, 1869. He studied at the universities of Halle, Göttingen, and Berlin, and was professor successively at all of them, at Göttingen for the last 32 years of his life. He was an eclectic in philosophy. His principal work is Geschichte der Philosophie (12 vols., Hamburg, 1829-'53; the part relating to ancient philosophy translated into French by Tissot, 4 vols., Paris, 1836-'7, and into English by A. J. W. Morrison, 4 vols., Oxford, 1838-'46; additional French translation by Trullard, 2 vols., 1843-'4). Among his other writings are: System der Logik und Metaphysik (2 vols., Göttingen, 1856); Die christliche Philosophie (2 vols., 1858-'9); and Encyklopädie der philosophi-schen Wissenschaften (3 vols., 1862-'4).
Heinrich Robert Goppert, a German botanist, born at Sprottau, July 25, 1800. He studied pharmacy and medicine, and has been since 1831 professor of botany and medicine at the university of Breslau. He has published many important works on botany and fossil flora, including Ueber die fossilen Farnkrauter (Breslau, 1836); Die Gattungen der fossilen Pflan-zen verglichen mit denen der Jetztzeit (Bonn, 1841-'2); Index Paloeontologicus (Stuttgart, 1848-'50); Ueber die fossile Flora der siluri-schen, der devonischen und untern Kohlenforma-tion (Jena, 1860); and Ueber Structurrerhalt-nisse der Steinkohle (Breslau, 1868). His private collection of specimens of fossil flora is considered the finest in the world, and the botanical garden and museum in Breslau have become under his management model institutions.
Heinrich Schafer, a German historian, born at Schlitz, Upper Hesse, April 25, 1794, died in Giessen, July 2, 1869. He was professor of history at Giessen from 1833 till his death. His principal works are Geschichte von Portugal (5 vols., Hamburg and Gotha, 1836-'54), and Geschichte von Spanien (3 vols., 1831-'67), of which Lembke wrote the first volume. Both works form part of Ukert and Heeren's Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten. Among his later writings is Ueber heutige Aufgaben der Geschichtschreibung (Giessen, 1864).