Hiogo, Or Fiogo a seaport town of Japan, pleasantly situated on the island of Nipon, on the bay and about 20 m. W. of the city of Osaka, of which it is the port; pop. about 20,000, including a small number of foreign merchants, mostly Germans. Being the best harbor of Japan, its opening to foreign trade in 1868, and its proximity to the most fertile districts of the empire, gave rise to great commercial activity. The exports are very considerable, especially of tea. The annual imports are valued at about $7,000,000. Upward of 1,000 vessels enter the port annually. A railway to Osaka was opened in 1874.
Hipparchus , an ancient astronomer, born in Nicaea, Bithynia, flourished in the middle of the 2d century B. C. We have no details of his life, and our knowledge of his astronomical discoveries is derived altogether from his disciple Ptolemy. He was the first who systematically attempted to classify the stars, and to determine their position and magnitude. To his catalogue we are indebted for our knowledge of the retrograde motion of the equinoctial points. He was the inventor of the planisphere, and he conceived the idea of marking the position of places on the earth by circles drawn perpendicular and parallel to the equator. His only work still extant is the " Commentary on the Phenomena of Aratus and Eudoxus," the best edition of which is that of Petavius (Paris, 1630).
Hipparchus ,.See Hippias and Hipparchus.
Hippo, Or Hippo Regius, an ancient city of Numidia, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Bona in Algeria. It was one of the residences of the Numidian kings, and afterward celebrated as the episcopal see of St. Augustine. It was taken and destroyed by the Vandals in 430. Its surname served to distinguish it from another town of the same name on the Carthaginian coast, W. of Utica.
Hippocrene , (Gr. horse, and fountain), called by Persius Fons Caballinus (the fountain of the horse), a fountain on Mount Helicon in Boeotia, owing its name to a myth according to which it was produced by Pegasus striking the ground with his hoofs. (See Helicon.)
Hipponax , a Greek lyric poet of the latter half of the 6th century B. C. He was a native of Ephesus, was banished by its tyrants Athe-nagoras and Comas, and afterward lived in Cla-zomenae in extreme poverty. He was small and ugly in person, and was one of the severest of Greek satirists. His favorite themes were the effeminacy and vices of his fellow citizens, and the faithlessness of women. The Chian sculp-tors Bupalus and Athenis, who made caricature ( statues of him, were assailed in the bitterest of his satires. Of the poems of Hipponax about 100 lines are still extant.