Hortus Siccus

See Herbarium.

Hosanna

Hosanna (Heb. hoshi'ah na, Save, we pray), in Jewish antiquity, a form of acclamation on joyous and triumphal occasions. At the feast of tabernacles it was customary to sing Ps. cxviii. 25, which contains the words hoshi'ah na, while the people carried green boughs of palm and myrtle and branches of willow. Hence the prayers were called hosanna, and the seventh day of the feast the great hosanna. The term was employed as a salutation to Christ on his public entry into Jerusalem.

Hosea

Hosea, the first of the minor prophets. He was the son of Beeri, commenced his prophecy about 785 B. C, and exercised his office at intervals for about 60 years. He was a resident of the kingdom of Israel, against which most of his prophecies are directed, rebuking and threatening the people for their sins, and exhorting them to repentance. His style is concise, sententious, and abrupt; and his prophecies are in one continued series, without any distinction as to the times when they were delivered or their subjects.

Hospitallers

See Saint John of Jerusalem, Knights of.

Hottentots Bread

See Tortoise Plant.

Hounslow

Hounslow, a town of Middlesex, England, 10 m. W. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 9,294. It consists of a single street, which stretches along the Great Western road from London. On Hounslow heath, which previous to the present century was frequently the scene of highway robberies, now stand gunpowder mills.

Houore Joseph Chavee

Houore Joseph Chavee, a Belgian philologist, born in Namur, June 3, 1815. He was ordained in 1838, published in 1841 Essai iVety-mologie pliilosopliique, etc, and went in 1844 to Paris, where he became professor at the college Stanislas and the Athenee. About 1855 he established there a school of comparative philology, and in 1867 the Revue de Linguis-tique. He left the priesthood after the publication of his Lexicologie indo-europeenne, etc. (Paris, 1849), in which he supports the theory of the original plurality of races and languages. He also wrote Moise et les langues (1855), and Les langues et les races (1862).

Hour Circles, Or Horary Circles

Hour Circles, Or Horary Circles, great circles of the sphere, passing through the poles, and consequently perpendicular to the equator. They are meridians at every 1/24 part of the circumference, their planes thus making angles of 15° with each other.

Housatonic

Housatonic, a river of New England, which rises in Berkshire co., Mass., flows into Connecticut, winds through Litchfield co.,forms a part of the boundary between New Haven co. and Fairfield co., and falls into Long Island sound below Milford. Its entire length is about 150 m. Its scenery in general is very picturesque, and on its banks are numerous large mills. The Housatonic railroad follows its course for about 75 m.

House Of Braganca

House Of Braganca, the reigning house of Portugal, derived from Affonso, duke of Braganca, a natural son of John I., king of Portugal. The constitution of Lamego, 1139, declares that no foreign prince can succeed to the throne; consequently in 1578, on the death of King Sebastian in Africa, without issue, his people had recourse to the illegitimate line of Braganca. Philip II. of Spain, however, claimed the throne, and successfully supported his pretensions by an army under the duke of Alva. ' Philip and his successors on the Spanish throne continued to rule Portugal till 1640, when the Portuguese shook off the Spanish yoke and proclaimed Dom Joao, the then duke of Braganca, their king. He assumed the title of John IV., and the line of Braganca has continued to rule Portugal till the present time.