Hypothecation (Gr.Hypothecation 090077 under, andHypothecation 090078 a chest), a word which, in the Roman civil law, from which it is taken, signifies more nearly what we understand by mortgage than by pledge, for which they had a separate word, pignus; but it is not precisely the same as either. It was generally used whenever the title to property was transferred by the owner to his creditor, by way of security for the debt, but without that delivery of actual possession which was necessary to constitute a pledge. In English and American law, the word is most frequently used in the law of shipping.


Hyssop (hyssopus officinalis, Linn.), a perennial aromatic plant, of the natural order labiatae, a native of Europe, and cultivated there and in the United States in gardens. Its flowers, violet-colored or blue, and its leaves, are used in medicine, though but little by regular practitioners. It is a warm and gentle stimulant, promotes expectoration of the mucus, and is used in chronic catarrhs, especially by old people. The hyssop of Scripture is the caper tree, capparis spinosa (Linn.), which abounds in the south of Europe, in lower Egypt, and in Syria.


Hythe, a town and parliamentary borough of Kent, England, on the British channel, 11 m. W. S. W. of Dover; pop. of the municipal borough in 1871, 3,363. It is one of the cinque ports, and was formerly a place of considerable importance; but its harbor has been destroyed by accumulations of matter thrown up by the waves, and it is now a fashionable resort for sea bathing. It has a military school and a theatre. The parliamentary borough includes Folkestone and several smaller places.

I. E Braouezec

I. E Braouezec, a French explorer, born at Morlaix, Oct. 29, 1828, died April 3, 1870. Stationed on the W. coast of Africa as a naval commander, he examined in 1858-'9 the Gaboon, Senegal, and other rivers, and wrote Notes sur les peuplades riveraines du Gabon, de ses affluents et du flewoe Ogo-uevai, and memoirs on various African explorations. He died after his return to France from the effects of the African climate.

ILI, Or Eelee

ILI, Or Eelee, a river of central Asia, which rises on the northern slope of the mountains of Thian-shan-nan-lu, traverses a part of eastern Turkistan, and flows into Lake Tengiz or Balkash, near the borders of Siberia. Its length is about 450 m.


Ibarra, an inland town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Imbabura, 55 m. N. by E. of Quito; pop. about 14,000. It is delightfully situated in the fertile plain of Imbabura, a short distance N. of the volcano of that name. The streets are wide and regular, and many of the houses well built, generally of adobes. The chief buildings are the governor's residence, the parish church in the public square, the hospital, and a beautiful pantheon. There are a college or Latin school and a number of primary and grammar schools in buildings formerly used as convents. Sugar of excellent quality is manufactured; also cotton and woollen stuffs, very fine laces, hats, brandy, cordials or liqueurs, and sweetmeats; and there are extensive salt works. The city was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1868.