Ippolito Caffi

Ippolito Caffi, an Italian painter, born in Belluno in 1814. He studied in Venice and Rome, visited the East, and in 1848 barely escaped being shot by the Austrian authorities on account of his participation in revolutionary outbreaks. After the capitulation of Venice he took up his residence in Piedmont. He excels in monumental views by an original disposition of light and shade. His most celebrated picture is "The Carnival in Rome," which was exhibited at the Paris exposition of 1855, and which he has reproduced more than 40 times.

Ipsara, Or Psara

Ipsara, Or Psara, a barren and rocky island belonging to Turkey, in the Grecian archipelago, 10 m. W. of Scio; greatest length about 6 m., breadth 5 m. Those parts of it which are covered with a thin soil have been carefully cultivated, and before the Greek revolution the island was prosperous and densely populated, forming one of the most important marine stations under the control of Greeks. During the war it earned a national fame by the devotion and bravery of its mariners, but was captured and almost depopulated by the Turks (July 3, 1824); since that time it has been of little importance. There is but one town upon the island, also called Ipsara, and having hardly more than 500 inhabitants. It is situated on the S. side, where a small bay affords good anchorage; but it has little commerce, and the people are chiefly supported by fishing.


Ipsus, a town of ancient Phrygia in Asia Minor, probably about 10 m. S. E. of Synnada, and a short distance N. W. of the modern village of Bulavadin, 28 m. E. of Afium-Kara-hissar. It is famous on account of the battle fought in 301 B. C. (or in 300, as Grote conjectures), in the plain near it, when Antigonus and his son Demetrius were disastrously defeated by the forces of Seleucus, Cassander, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy. Antigonus fell, and the victory of his enemies was followed by a new division of the dominions of Alexander the Great, which terminated a bloody struggle of 20 years. In the 7th and 8th centuries Ipsus was the seat of a Christian bishop.


Irak-Ajemi, a central province of Persia, comprising a portion of the great desert, and bounded N. by a range of mountains dividing it from the provinces on the Caspian sea, E. by Khorasan, S. and S. W. by Fars and Khu-zistan, and W. and N. W. by Luristan, Arde-lan, and Azerbijan; area estimated at about 100,000 sq. m., pop. at 1,250,000. The surface consists chiefly of a high table land traversed by several mountain ridges and fertile valleys. The Kizil Uzen in the north and the Kerah in the southwest are the principal rivers. The country is almost destitute of trees, and a considerable portion of arable land is uncultivated, but there are excellent pasture lands. Some of the valleys which are well watered produce large crops of rice, wheat, and other grains; and fruits, opium, tobacco, cotton, saffron, and silk are staples. Ispahan, Teheran, Hamadan, Casbin, Ker-manshah, and Kum are the principal towns.