Isabella Of Valois

See Elizabeth of Valois.

Isabella Of Valois #1

See Elizabeth of Valois.

Ischl, Or Ischil

Ischl, Or Ischil, a fashionable watering place in Upper Austria, on the river Traun, in the centre of five or six valleys, surrounded by picturesque mountains, 27 m. E. S. E. of Salzburg; pop. in 1869, 7,126. In the vicinity are extensive salt works, established in 1822. It contains several churches and schools, and sulphur, mud, and saline vapor baths. A suspension bridge crosses the Traun, at the junction of the Ischl. It is a favorite resort of the Austrian nobility and of the present emperor.


Iseghem, a town of Belgium, in the province of West Flanders, 7 m. N. N. W. of Courtray; pop. in 1867, 7,955. It has important manufactories of cotton, linen, hats, thread, ribbon, and soap, breweries, and tanneries, and a large trade in cattle.


Iserlohn, a town of Prussia, in the province of Westphalia, 15 m. W. of Arnsberg; pop. in 1871, 15,763. It is remarkable for its manufactures of iron, steel, bronze, needles, etc. The manufacture of iron was in operation there in the middle ages. That of brass dates from the 18th century. The other manufactures are silks, velvet, broadcloth, ribbons, leather, and paper. The country around Iser-lohn is diversified with picturesque ruins, rocks, glens, and valleys. In the vicinity of the town is the celebrated Felsenmeer (sea of rocks), and a remarkable sounding cave containing fossil bones.


Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar, born in Mamre. After the birth of a son to Sarah, she persuaded Abraham to banish Hagar and Ishmael, and from that time Ishmael dwelt as a hunter in the wilderness of Paran. His 12 sons became the heads of 12 tribes dwelling in the Arabian desert between Egypt and the Euphrates, under the name of Ishmaelites or Ha-garenes. - In the 10th century A. D. the name of Ishmaelites or Ismaelians was assumed by a Mohammedan secret society in Syria and Persia. (See Assassins.)

Isidore Alexandre Augnstin Pils

Isidore Alexandre Augnstin Pils, a French painter, born in Paris, July 19, 1813. He studied under Picot and at the school of fine arts, and in 1838 won the great prize of Rome. His productions comprise " St. Peter healing the Lame at the Gate of the Temple," "Christ preaching in Simon's Boat," " Death of St. Mary Magdalen," and "Battle of the Alma" (1861). In 1863 he became professor of painting at the school of fine arts, and in 1868 he succeeded Picot as member of the academy.

Isidore Mercator

Isidore Mercator, also called Peccator and Pseudo-Isidore, the supposed author of the false decretals. (See Canon Law, and Decretals.)

Isla De Leon

See Cadiz.


Islam, an Arabic word, signifying full submission to God. It is used by Mohammedans to designate their religion, and also the whole body of believers, or those who accept the formula of faith: "There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet." This formula or profession of faith is understood to include five essential articles of religion: 1, the acknowledgment of the divine unity and of the mission of Mohammed; 2, observance of prayer; 3, almsgiving; 4, keeping the fast of Ramadan; 5, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Shiahs, or adherents of Ali, who are dominant in Persia, add to the declaration of faith, " Ali is the vicar of God." But the Sunnis, or orthodox Mohammedans, who form the majority of the church of Islam, reject this.