Iztaccihuatl, a volcano of Mexico, 15,705 ft. above the sea, not far from that of Popocatepetl, near the city of Puebla. It is sometimes called the Sierra Nevada, its top being almost always covered with snow. Its name is aboriginal Mexican, from iztac, white, and cihuatl, woman, suggested by its fancied resemblance to a woman in a white dress. It has not been active since the conquest.


Jack, a N. W. county of Texas, intersected by the W. fork of Trinity river; area, 870 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 694, of whom 72 were colored. It lies chiefly in the "cross timbers," and has great diversity of surface and soil. Stock raising is the chief industry, though there is some excellent farming land. The chief productions in 1870 were 6,750 bushels of Indian corn, 3,620 of oats, and 176 tons of hay. The value of live stock was $15,925. Capital, Jacksboro.


Jacmel, a seaport town of Hayti, at the head of a bay of the same name, on the S. coast, 30 m. S. W. of Port-au-Prince; pop. about 6,000. It is divided into the upper and lower town, the former being commonly called Belair; the streets are very narrow in the lower town, and the houses in both are chiefly of wood. The harbor is commodious, and has good anchoring ground for vessels of any size, but is exposed to the S. winds and to a heavy sea setting in toward the shore. It is well frequented by shipping, mostly from the United States, and is a station for the West India mail steamers. The climate is hot and unhealthy.

Jacob Clement

Jacob Clement, a Flemish composer of the 16th century, principal chapelmaster of the emperor Charles V. He stood at the head of his profession in the period between Despres and Palestrina, excelled both in sacred and secular music, and was called Clemens non papa. Seven of his posthumous books of motets, in four parts, were published in London in 1507, and his Missa Defunctorum in 1580.

Jacob Green

Jacob Green, an American author, born in Philadelphia, July 26, 1790, died there, Feb. 1, 1841. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania at the age of 16, and immediately afterward published in connection with a young friend a treatise on electricity and galvanism. He was admitted to the bar, but never practised, and in 1818 was appointed professor of chemistry, experimental philosophy, and natu-ral history in the college of New Jersey. This position he exchanged four years later for the chair of chemistry in the Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia, which he filled until his death. He was the author of a number of scientific text books, including "Chemical Philosophy" (Philadelphia, 1829), "Astronomical Recreations," "Treatise of Electro-Magnetism," "Monograph of the Trilobites of North America," etc.; of papers in the "American Journal of Science;" and of "Notes of a Traveller through England and Europe" (3 vols., 1831).

Jacob Jordaens

Jacob Jordaens, a Flemish painter, born in Antwerp in 1594, died there in 1678. He studied in the school of Adam van Oort, whose daughter he married. Rubens, whom he imitated, intrusted him with the execution on a large scale of many of his small sketches. He excelled in the representation of bacchanalian subjects and scenes of festive riot. Of these, the pictures of the "Satyr and the Man blowing hot and cold," and " Pan and Syrinx," are well known specimens. He was an industrious painter, designing and executing with great facility, and in the course of his long life finished an immense number of works.