Jacques Sirmond, a French scholar, born in Riom in October, 1559, died in Paris, Oct. 7, 1651. He was a Jesuit, and in 1590 became secretary to the general of the order, Claudio Acquaviva. In 1608 he went to Paris to edit a collection of the histories of the French church councils. In 1637, to prevent his returning to Rome, he was chosen by Louis XIII. as his confessor. He was involved in controversies with Salmasius, Saint-Cyran, and others. His principal original works are: Notoe Stigmaticoe (4to, Frankfort, 1612), directed against Richer's work on the temporal and spiritual powers; Concilia antiqua Gallioe (3 vols. fol, Paris, 1629); and Historia Poeniten-tioe Publicoe (1651). A collected edition of his works appeared in 1696 (5 vols, fol.), with a life of the author by Labaune. He published many editions of ancient authors.
Jade Nephrite, a mineral of variable composition, chiefly consisting of silica, magnesia, and lime, used as an ornamental stone, for which it is adapted by its close texture and susceptibility of taking a fine polish. It is tough, translucent, of about the hardness of quartz, specific gravity 3, and of bluish, light green, or flesh color. It fuses with great difficulty into a white enamel. It is found with the metamorphic slates and limestones.
Jade, Or Jahde, a small navigable river of Germany, in the grand duchy of Oldenburg, which falls into Jade bay S. W. of the mouth of the Weser. This bay, which covers an area of 74 sq. m., was formed in 1511 by a tempest which inundated five parishes. A tract of land adjacent to the mouth of the Jade was purchased by Prussia from Oldenburg in 1853 for the purpose of constructing a war port, which in 1869 was opened in the presence of the king of Prussia. (See Wilhelmshaven.) The "Territory of Jade," which had an area of 1.31 sq. m. and in 1871 a population of 3,789, was administered by the Prussian admiralty till March 23, 1873, when it was incorporated with the Aurich district of the province of Hanover.
Jaeob Brown, an American general, born in Bucks co., Penn., May 9, 1775, died in Washington, Feb. 24, 1828. He was descended from members of the society of Friends; supported himself in early life by teaching school; was also employed for some time as a surveyor of public lands in Ohio; and settled in Jefferson co., N. Y., then a wilderness, in 1799. He was a militia general in 1812; was soon after appointed brigadier general in the regular army, and in 1814 major general; assisted in the defence of Sackett's Harbor in 1813; and in the following year exhibited much bravery in the battles of Chippewa and Niagara Falls, and at the siege of Fort Erie, receiving the thanks of congress and a gold medal. At the termination of the war he continued in the army as 'major general, succeeding in 1821 to the chief command.