Jakob Cats

Jakob Cats, a Dutch statesman and poet, born at Brouwershaven in Zealand, Nov. 10, 1577, died at Zorgvliet, near the Hague, Sept. 12, 1660. He studied law at Leyden, Orleans, and Paris, and on his return to his native land practised his profession for a while, and also published some successful poems. In 1627 he was ambassador to England, from 1636 to 1651 grand pensioner of Holland, and in 1652 again ambassador to England. He wrote a poem entitled "Country Life" (Buitenlcven), and numerous "Moral Emblems," fables, and songs. A new edition of his works, in 19 vols., appeared in Amsterdam in 1790-1800. A German translation of part of them was published at Hamburg in 1710-'17. His "Emblems" have been translated into English. A monument was dedicated to him at Ghent in 1829.

Jakob Dubs

Jakob Dubs, a Swiss statesman, born at Af-foltern, canton of Zurich, in 1822. He studied law at the universities of Bern, Heidelberg, and Zurich, and was elected in 1847 a member of the grand council, and subsequently held various offices in his native canton. He became in 1855 a member, and in 1857 president of the federal court. He was president of the confederation in 1864, and again in 1870, having served meanwhile in the federal council. He belongs to the liberal party, and is distinguished for the reforms which he inaugurated in the administration of justice and in education. He has written Entwurf eines Straf gesetzbuches far den Canton Zurich (1855), Entwurf eines Gesetzcs uber den Unterricht (1857), and Die schweizer Demokratie in ihrer Fortentwickelung (1868).

Jakob Maerlant

Jakob Maerlant, a Dutch poet, born in Flanders about 1235, died at Damme, near Bruges, in 1300. His earliest poems, "The Trojan War" and "Alexander," imitations of French romances of chivalry, are yet imprinted. He afterward devoted himself to the elaboration of Biblical subjects and of didactic themes. He is styled the father of Dutch poetry. Among his metrical productions are a life of St. Francis, in which he follows the Latin of Bonaventura (Leyden, 1848); the Heimelijkheid der heimelijkheden (Dort, 1838), after the Secreta Secretorum, falsely ascribed to Aristotle; Wapen Martijn (Antwerp, 1496; Dort, 1834); and Van den lande van Oversee. He completed in 1270 a versified version of the Bible (Rijmbibel, edited by David, 2 vols., 1858-'60), and began in 1283 his Spieghel histo-riael, which was continued by others after his death. Among his other works is Der naturen bloeme (edited by Bormans, Brussels, 1857).

Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz

Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, a German poet, born at Sesswcgen, Livonia, Jan. 12, 1750, died in Moscow, May 24, 1792. He was the son of a clergyman, studied in Konigsberg, and as a tutor of Russian nobles went to Strasburg, where he was an unsuccessful lover of Goethe's Friederiko of Sesenheim. In 1776 he associated with Goethe, Herder, and Wieland at Weimar; but his aversion to the conventionalities of society put a speedy end to his residence there. He became insane, and ended his life in great misery. His writings, chiefly dramatic, edited by Ticck (3 vols., Berlin, 1828), reflect the "storm and pressure period" of German literature.