Janos Bacsanyi, a Hungarian poet, born at Tapolcza, in the county of Zala, May 11, 1763, died in Linz, Upper Austria, May 12, 1845. His first work was A magyaroh vitezsege ("The Valor of the Magyars," Pesth, 1785). He cooperated with Kazinczy in editing the Magyar Museum, and with him was implicated in the democratic conspiracy of the abbot Mar-tinovich of 1794, and was sent to prison at the Spielberg, where he was confined about two years. Having marrried the German poetess Gabriele Baumberg and settled in Vienna, he was obliged to leave that city in 1809 for translating Napoleon's proclamation to the Hungarians, and took refuge in Paris. He was delivered up to the Austrian authorities after the peace of 1811, and kept under surveillance in Linz. He published his collected poems at Pesth in 1827 and at Buda in 1835.
January (Lat. Januarius), the first month of the year, consisting of 31 days. It is said to have been added with February by Numa to the Roman year, which previously had but ten months. It was named from the double-faced god Janus, to whom its first day, which looks back upon the past year and forward upon that to come, was sacred. It had originally but 29 days, but two additional days were given to it by Julius Caesar when he reformed the calendar. It was symbolized in Rome by a consul in consular robes, because those magistrates were installed in office on its first day. It corresponded in the Athenian calendar with the latter half of Poseideon and the first half of Gamelion. Among the Scandinavians it was called primitively month of Thor, and later Ice month. The French revolutionary calendar merged it in parts of Nivose and of Plu-viose. It was not uniformly the beginning of the year among Latin Christian nations until the 18th century.
Japetus, one of the Titans of Greek mythology, a son of Uranus and Ge, and brother of Cronos (Saturn), Oceanus, Hyperion, Rhea, and others. According to one tradition, he became by Asia, the daughter of Oceanus, father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius. According to other traditions, his wife was Cly-mene, another daughter of Oceanus. Tethys, Asopis, and Libya are also associated with him in the varying forms of the myth. The Greeks regarded Japetus as the progenitor of the human race, through his son Prometheus. His fate in the war with the gods is variously stated. Homer represents him as imprisoned with Cronos in Tartarus; another tradition is that he was buried under the island of Inarime.
Japura, Or Caqueta, a river of South America, rising in the Pasto mountains of Colombia, and flowing generally S. E. to its junction with the Amazon by several mouths, the central one of which is in lat. 3° 20' S., and lon. 65° 40' W., opposite the town of Ega, while the extreme easterly and westerly mouths are 350 m. apart! From lon. 73° 32' it forms the boundary line between Brazil and Ecuador, and from the same point to its principal embouchure is entirely a Brazilian river. The whole length of its course is about 1,000 m. Among its tributaries are the Messai and the Apaporis, both considerable streams. It was explored in 1865 by order of the Brazilian government, and found to be navigable by large vessels as far as the cataract of Santa Cruz, Ion. 72° 15', a distance of over 400 m.