Japygia

See Apulia.

Jarnac

Jarnac, a town of France, in the department and on the river Charente, 16 m. W. by N. of Angouleme; pop. in 1866, 4,243. It has a small port and an active trade in grain, wine, and brandy. It is renowned for a battle fought here on March 13, 1569, between the Catholics under the duke of Anjou (afterward Henry III.) and the Huguenots under the prince of Conde, in which the latter were defeated and their leader captured and assassinated. - One of the lords of Jarnac, Gui de Chabot, a gentleman of the royal court, acquired notoriety in 1547 by fighting a duel with the permission of Henry II., in which he was about to fall when he gave a sudden thrust to his adversary; whence the expression coup de Jarnac. This was the last duel in France fought with the sanction of the king.

Jaroslav

See Yaroslav.

Jarrow, Or Yarrow

Jarrow, Or Yarrow, a town of Durham, England, on the Tyne, 5 m. E. of Newcastle, and 240 N. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 18,-179, chiefly Irish. It was till within a recent period only a small colliery village, and its rapid growth is due to the establishment of iron ship-building yards, and chemical and other works. There are new docks, a large mechanics' institute, and many schools and places of worship. A famous monastery was established here by St. Benedict Biscop in 681; it was destroyed by William the Conqueror in 1070, but there are still some remains of it. St. Paul's church is renowned for its relics of the Venerable Bede, said to have been buried here.

Jason

See Argonauts.

Jaszbereny

Jaszbereny, a town of Hungary, capital of the united districts of Jazygia and Cumania, on the Zagyva, 38 m. N. E. of Pesth; pop. in 1870, 20,233. It is pleasantly situated, and the islands formed by the river in the middle of the town have been converted into promenades. Attila is popularly believed to have been buried in a fort of which there are remains in the public square. The most conspicuous public buildings are a fine Catholic church and gymnasium, and a Protestant church. Much wine is produced in this vicinity, which also contains extensive stone quarries; and horses, cattle, and sheep are reared in great numbers.

Jauer

Jauer, a town of Prussia, in the province of Silesia, on the "Wuthende Neisse, an affluent of the Katzbach, and on the Schweidnitz and Liegnitz railway, 12 m. S. S. E. of Liegnitz; pop. in 1871, 9,964. It has a Protestant gymnasium, a hospital, and manufactories of leather, buckskin, and carpets. From 1314 to 1392 it was the capital of a principality of Jauer, which had an area of 1,200 sq. m., and contained the present circles of Jauer, Bunz-lau, Lowenberg, Hirschberg, and Schonau.

Jauja

Jauja, an inland town of Peru, in the department of Junin, 108 m. E. by ft. of Lima; pop. about 15,000. It is delightfully situated in the valley and near the left bank of a river of the same name, which, afterward known as the Mantaro, is one of the principal branches of the Apurimac. The town has a fine cavalry barrack and several churches and schools, and in the vicinity are numerous weaving factories.. The chief commerce is in horses of excellent breed and horned cattle. In the district of Jauja are the celebrated missionary convent of Ocapa and ruins of ancient Indian towns and castles. The climate, though somewhat cold, is very salubrious. This is one of the most ancient towns in Peru, and was the capital of the viceroyalty until Jan. 18, 1535.