Jayadeva

Jayadeva, a Hindoo poet, born at Kenduli, a town of doubtful position, but according to tradition near the Ganges, about the middle of the 12th century. The only poem of his extant is entitled Gita Govinda, in honor of Govinda or Krishna, the eighth avatar or incarnation of Vishnu. It is a species of pastoral drama, in which the loves of the god and his innamorata Radha are described in very impassioned language. This poetry has always been greatly admired by the Hindoos, and most of the commentators contend that it is to be understood in a figurative and allegorical sense, the loves of Krishna and Radha describing the attraction between the divine goodness and the human soul. There is an English translation of it by Sir William Jones, who admits the allegorical meaning, though others think it merely an amatory poem.

Jazygia

See Jazyges.

Jean Albert Darchambaiid Bucquoy

Jean Albert Darchambaiid Bucquoy, count and abbe de, a French writer, born in Champagne about 1650, died in November," 1740. He was by turns a soldier, a gallant, a churchman, a founder of seminaries, a teacher, a revolutionist, a skeptic, and a moral philosopher. He was imprisoned in the Bastile, but escaped (1709) and fled to Switzerland, thence to Holland, and then to Hanover, where he spent some time at the court of George I., who liked his wit and gave him a pension. His principal work, Eve-nements des plus rares, etc. (1719), relates to his experiences in prison. He also wrote on politics, religion, and toward the close of his life on the malignity of women and on death. He figures in Gerard de Nerval's gallery of eccentric personages (Les illumines, ou les precur-seurs du socialisme, Paris, 1852).

Jean Alexandre Buchon

Jean Alexandre Buchon, a French writer, born May 21, 1791, died in Paris, April 29, 1846. He began life as an anti-Bourbon journalist, and his first work, a biography of Tasso, was seized by the government. lie left France in 1821, lectured on dramatic art in England, and gathered in various parts of Europe materials for his Collection des ehroniques natio-nales frangaises (47 vols., Paris, 1824-'9). He also collected, chiefly in Greece, original materials relating to the French occupation of the East during the crusades, and published the results of his researches in several works.

Jean Antenor Hue De Calign Y

Jean Antenor Hue De Calign Y, a French military and civil engineer, born in 1657, died in 1731. He was present at the sieges of Valenciennes, Freiburg, Courtrai, Furnes, and Dix-mude, and superintended the construction of the Burgundy canal. He strengthened Calais against the English in 1694 and 1696 by new forts; and in 1706, after the battle of Ramil-lies, he frustrated the plans of Marlborough, by causing the two banks of the canals of Lef-finghe and of Bruges to be inundated. He also constructed the great dam on the Aa, at Gravelines.

Jean Antoine Dubois

Jean Antoine Dubois, a French missionary, born at St. Remeze, Languedoc, in 1765, died in Paris, Feb. 7, 1848. He spent 32 years in the East Indies, and on his return published "Letters on the State of Christianity in India " (London, 1823), which produced much controversy in England, because it expressed his disbelief in the possibility of the conversion of the Hindoos. He wrote several remarkable works relating to the religion and the traditions of India, and many contributions to the Bulletin des sciences, and to the journals of the Asiatic societies of London and Paris, of which he was a member. His most celebrated work, "Description of the Character, Manners, and Customs of the People of India, and of their Institutions, religious and civil," was published by the East India company in London in 1816, and an enlarged edition was published in French under the title of Moeurs, institutions et ceremonies des peuples de l'Inde (Paris, 1825).