Jean Antoine Theodore Gudin, a French painter, born in Paris, Aug. 15, 1802. He was a pupil of Girodet-Trioson, and from the outset of his career devoted himself mainly to sea pieces. Among his best productions are a view of "Mont St. Michel at High Tide;" "A Steamboat landing Passengers at Dover;" "A Gale, Jan. 7, 1831, in Algiers Harbor;" "La Salle discovering Louisiana;" "A Naval Battle in the Chesapeake;11 and "A Shipwreck on the Coast of America."
Jean Astruc, a French physician, born at Sauve, March 19, 1684, died May 5, 1766. He was a graduate and became a professor of the medical college of Montpellier as a substitute of Chirac, on whose death he succeeded him in the professorship, after having filled for some time the chair of anatomy in Toulouse. In 1730 he became regent and professor of the faculty of medicine at Paris, and was also physician to the king. His most celebrated work is De Morbis Venereis Libri sex (2d ed., 2 vols., 1740; translated into French and other languages); and he was regarded as a high authority on venereal and female diseases and obstetrics, though he excelled rather by his prodigious memory than by inventive genius. Among his many other writings are Traite des maladies des femmes (6 vols., 1761-'5), and a posthumous work, L'art d'Vaccoucher reduit a ses principes (1 vol., 1768).
Jean Augustin Barral, a French chemist and physician, born at Metz in 181!). After receiving his education at the polytechnic school, he became an otticer of the regie or government tobacco monopoly. He was the first to extract nicotine from the leaf of that plant, and to demonstrate by experiment its poisonous qualities. In 1845 he was made a tutor of chemistry at the polytechnic school, and in 1851 a professor of chemistry and natural philosophy at the college of Sainte-Barbe. In 1850 he made two ascents in a balloon, which were attended with great danger, for the purpose of taking observations on the temperature, humidity, and other conditions of the atmosphere at various heights. He edited for a while the Journal (V agriculture pratique, and has written many treatises on the application of chemistry to agriculture, metallurgy, and the arts.
Jean Baptistc Gaspard D'Ansse De Villois0n, a French philologist, born at Corbeil-sur-Seine about 1750, died April 26, 1805. In 1773 he published from a manuscript Apollonius's lexicon of the Iliad and Odyssey, together with the fragments of Philemon (2 vols. fol., Paris). In 1778 he was sent by the government to Venice to search the library of St. Mark for unpublished Greek manuscripts, and in 1781 published his Anecdota Groeca (2 vols. 4to, Venice). He also found there a manuscript Iliad of the 10th century with very ancient scholia (now known as the scholia Veneta), which he printed in 1788. Explorations in the library of Weimar led to the Epistolm Vimarienses (4to, Zurich, 1783). He subsequently travelled several years in Greece and the Archipelago, and became a member of the institute.