Jean Baptiste Clery

Jean Baptiste Clery, celebrated for his devotion to Louis XVI., and as the faithful valet of the dauphin Louis XVII., born at Jardy, near Versailles, in 1759, died at Hietzing, near Vienna, May 27, 1809. Clery was one of the few attendants permitted to share the prison of Louis XVI., who a few days before his death divided a loaf of bread with him as the only proof of regard he was able to show him. Clery published the Journal de ce qui s'cxt passe a la toiir du Temple pendant la captivite de Louis XVI. (London, 1798), which passed through many editions.

Jean Baptiste De La Salle

See La Salle.

Jean Baptiste Du Halde

Jean Baptiste Du Halde, a French geographer, born in Paris, Feb. 1, 1674, died Aug. 18, 1743. In 1708 he became a Jesuit, and was afterward appointed to edit the letters of missionaries in various parts of the world, and especially in China. The result was two works which contributed largely to geographical knowledge: Lettres edifiantes et curieuses ecrites des missions etrangeres, edited by Du Halde from the 9th to the 26th volume inclusive; and Description geographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise (4 vols. fol., Paris, 1735). An English translation of the latter was published in London (4 vols. 8vo, 1736, 1744; 2 vols. fol., 1742). The Lettres edifiantes have been translated into German, and a selection from the earlier volumes appeared in London in 1743, in 2 vols. 8vo, entitled "Jesuits' Letters."

Jean Baptiste Dubos

Jean Baptiste Dubos, a French critic and historian, born in Beauvais in December, 1670, died in Paris, March 23, 1742. The best known of his numerous works is his Histoire critique de l'etablissement de la monarchic francaise dans les Gaules (3 vols. 4to, Paris, 1734). The theory which he maintains in this work, that the occupation of Gaul by the Franks was a settlement and not a conquest, has been contested by Montesquieu and others. Of his Reflexions critique sur la poesie et la peintvre (2 vols. 12mo, 1719; 6th ed., 1755), there is an English translation (London, 1748).

Jean Baptiste Dumas

Jean Baptiste Dumas, a French chemist and politician, born in Alais, July 14,1800. Under the patronage of De Candolle, at Geneva, he early acquired considerable proficiency as a botanist and a chemist. In 1821 he went to Paris, married the daughter of Alexandre Bron-gniart, and was professor of chemistry in the polytechnic school, in the faculty of science, and in the school of medicine. After the revolution of 1848 he was elected to the legislative assembly, and on Oct. 31, 1849, became minister of agriculture and commerce. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he was appointed a senator. In 1868 he was elected perpetual secretary of the academy; and in 1869 the London society of chemistry gave him the Faraday medal. He has published Traite de chimie appliquee aux arts (8 vols. 8vo, with 4to atlas, 1828-'45), Lecons sur la philosophic chimique (1837), Essai sur la statique chimique des etres organises (1841), Enquete sur les engrais (1867), and other works.