Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin

Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, a French painter, born in Paris about 1699, died Dec. 0, 1779. The son of a workman, and without teachers, he yet reached eminence, and became a member of the academy in 1728. He excelled in painting still life, flowers and fruits, and subsequently in delineating the life of the middle classes. His Benedicite in the Louvre, representing a woman reciting prayers before dinner to her two children, gave him a wide reputation, and was regarded by Diderot as superior even to Greuze. He was in his 80th year when he exhibited his "Jacquet;" and shortly after he painted an admirable portrait of himself, which is in the Louvre.

Jean Baptiste Vaquette Gribeauval

Jean Baptiste Vaquette Gribeauval, de, a French artillerist, born in Amiens, Sept. 15, 1715, died in Paris, May 9, 1789. In 1732 he entered the royal regiment of artillery as a volunteer, in 1752 was sent by the government to study the Prussian system of artillery, and in 1757 was made lieutenant colonel. He now entered the service of Maria Theresa of Austria, and served during the seven years' war with the rank of general, distinguishing himself especially in the defence of Schweidnitz. Returning to France, he was appointed in 1765 inspector of artillery, and in 1776 inspector general, and devoted the remainder of his life to the improvement of that branch of the service. (See Aetilleey.) His principal work is Reglement concemant les fontes et constructions de l'artillerie de France (3 vols. fob, in 4 parts, with 125 plates, Paris, 1792). Only 125 copies for the use of the government were printed.

Jean Baptiste Victor Proudhon

Jean Baptiste Victor Proudhon, a French jurist, born at Chanans, Franche-Comté, Feb. 1,1758, died in Dijon, Nov. 20, 1838. During the revolution he was judge at Pontarlier and assistant deputy to the legislative assembly, and afterward a member of the civil tribunal at Besançon. In 1802 he delivered free lectures on law; in 1806 he was appointed professor of civil law in the school of Dijon, and in 1809 became dean of the faculty. His principal works are: Traité sur Vétat des personnes et sur le titre préliminaire du Code civil (1810); Traité des droits d'usufruit, etc. (9 vols., 1823-'6); and Traité du domaine public (5 vols., 1884-'5).

Jean Barbeyrac

Jean Barbeyrac, a French jurist, born at Beziers, March 15, 1674, died March 3, 1744. He was the son of a Calvinist minister, and on the revocation of the edict of Nantes was taken to Switzerland and educated there. He taught at Berlin and Lausanne, and finally settled at Groningen as a professor of international law. He is best known for his translations from the Latin writings on public law of Grotius, Pu-fendorf, and others, with commentaries. He also published a supplement to the Grand corps diplomatique, with notes (5 vols, fob, Amsterdam, 1739), and a Traite du jeu (2d ed., 1737).

Jean Bardin

Jean Bardin, a French historical painter, born at Montbard, Oct. 31, 1732, died at Orleans, Oct. 6, 1809. He studied painting in Rome, and under Lagrenee and Pierre in Paris. In 1764 he gained the prize for his picture of "Tullia driving over the Body of her Father." He afterward became a member of the institute and director of the school of fine arts at Orleans. His chef-d'oeuvre, "Christ disputing with the Doctors," procured him admission to the academy in 1795. Among his pupils were David and Regnault.