Jesuits Bark

See Cinchona.


Jet, a variety of lignite, resembling cannel coal, but harder, of deeper black, and of more brilliant lustre. It is found in detached pieces in tertiary clays along the coast of Yorkshire, England, and in various places on the continent of Europe. From its susceptibility of taking a fine polish and its intense blackness, it has been largely used for mourning articles of ornament, as buttons, crosses, and ear rings.

Jethro Tull

Jethro Tull, an English agriculturist, born about 1680, died in January, 1740. He owned an estate near Hungerford, on the borders of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and observing the advantage of cultivation of plants in rows, and of stirring and pulverizing the soil between them, he introduced this system of cultivating the soil. But he adopted the erroneous principle that manure was not essential, as finely pulverized earth and moisture were sufficient for the growth of plants. This ruined him, and brought discredit upon his system. He published a treatise on his new mode of cultivation (1731), and detached essays, which were collected in 1751, and republished by William Cobbett in 1822. (See Agriculture, vol. i., p. 203).


See Flotsam.


See Hebrews.


Jewell, a N. county of Kansas, bordering on Nebraska; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 207. It is drained by affluents of the Republican and Solomon rivers. Capital, Jewell City.


I. Maria Jane, an English writer, born in Warwickshire about 1800, died in Bombay, India, in 1833. She was a writer for literary periodicals. In 1833 she' married the Rev. William Fletcher, and went with him as a missionary to India, but died soon after her arrival in that country. She published "Phantasmagoria," a series of sketches of life and literature, "Letters to the Young," "Lays of Leisure Hours," and "Three Histories." II. Geraldine Endsor, sister of the preceding, born in Warwickshire in 1821. She is the author of "Zoe, a History of Two Lives" (1845); "The Half Sisters" (1848); "Marian Withers " (1851); " Constance Herbert" (1855); " The History of an Adopted Child " and " The Sorrows of Gentility" (1856); and "Right or Wrong" (1857). She has also written a story for children entitled "Angelo, or the Pine Forest in the Alps " (1855).

Jiiana Inez De La Cruz

Jiiana Inez De La Cruz, a Mexican poetess, born near the city of Mexico, Nov. 12, 1651, died April 17, 1695. She was quick at acquiring knowledge, and spoke and wrote Latin fluently. She early entered the convent of St. Jerome in Mexico, where she remained till her death. During her life she was called the "tenth muse," and in Spain, where she is known as the "nun of Mexico," her poems have been popular. Her writings have been collected in 2 vols. 4to.

Jnan Sebastian Del Cano

Jnan Sebastian Del Cano, a Spanish navigator, born at Guetaria, died at sea, Aug. 4, 1526. He early became captain of a vessel sailing to the Levant and Africa, and subsequently joined Magalhaens's famous expedition in charge of one of its five vessels. Soon after the violent death of Magalhaens (April 27, 1521), he succeeded Carabello as commander, and returned to Spain in 1522 by the Cape of Good Hope with only one vessel left of the original five, after having visited the Moluccas or Spice islands and established friendly relations with one of the native sovereigns. He received a pension from Charles V., and was second in command of a new expedition of five vessels under Loaisa, which sailed on July 25, 1525, and met with many disasters. They passed the strait of Magellan May 26, 1526, but being again overtaken by storms in the Pacific, Loaisa died July 30, and Cano Aug. 4.