Johann Adam Bernhard von Bartsch, a German engraver, born in Vienna, Aug. 17, 1757, died there, Aug. 21, 1821. He rose to the highest eminence in his art, and became a member of the academy of fine arts and director of the imperial collection of engravings. He wrote Le peintre-graxeur (21 vols., Vienna, 1802-21), one of the best accounts of prints ever published, and Catalogues raisonnes of the works of Rembrandt (2 vols., 1797) and. other great artists. The catalogue of his own productions, comprising over 500 prints, was published in 1818 by his son Friedeich Joseph Adam von Bartscii, born July 12, 1798, who succeeded him as director.
Johann August Eberhard, a German philosopher, born in Halberstadt, Aug. 31, 1739, died Jan. 6,1809. He was first a teacher, and then a pastor. In a work entitled Neue Apolo-gie des Sol-rates (3d ed., Berlin, 1788), he opposed the opinion which had been lately advanced that the virtues of the pagans were only splendid vices. A religious romance entitled Amyntor did not, as it was designed to do, cause the bold assertions of this apology to be forgotten. In 1778 he was appointed professor of philosophy in the university of Halle, and soon after a member of the academy of Berlin. He was attached to the philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolf, and combated the systems of Kant and Fiehte. His writings on philosophical and aesthetical subjects are numerous.
Johann Beckmann, a German technologist, born at Hoya, June 4, 1739, died in Hanover, Feb. 4, 1811. He was educated for the church, but abandoned theology in order to devote himself to the natural sciences. For some time he was professor of natural philosophy in the Lutheran academy of St. Petersburg; and after studying mineralogy in Sweden, and forming there the acquaintance of Linnreus, he was appointed in 1766 professor at Got-tingen. He acquired a high reputation by his lectures and treatises on rural economy (Grundsatze der deutschen Landicirthschaft, 6th ed., 1806), finance, commerce, technology, politics, etc. He wrote Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Erfindung (5 vols., Leipsic, 1780-1805; English translation, "History of Inventions," etc, 4 vols., London, 1817; revised ed., 2 vols., 1846). His editions of the "Wonderful Histories" of Carystius, of Be Mirabilibus Aus-cultationibus, and of the "Treatise on Stones" by Marbodius, are valued.
Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg, count, a German botanist, born in Dresden, May 23, 1766, died there, Dec. 13, 1849. He studied in Leipsic and Gottingen, served as an officer in the Saxon guard from 1783 to 1786, and spent some years in travel. He discovered several hundred new plants, and made important contributions to entomology. He published Voyage en Portugal (Paris, 1805), and, with the aid of II. F. Link, Flore portugaixe, in French and Latin (fob, Berlin, 1809-'33), toward the cost of which he himself contributed nearly $40,000.