Johann Christdph Pepusch

Johann Christdph Pepusch, a German composer, born in Berlin in 1667, died in London, July 20, 1752. For several years he was harpsichord teacher at the court of Brandenburg, and about 1698 emigrated to England, where he passed the remainder of his life. In 1710 he was one of the founders of the academy of ancient music, which subsisted for more than 80 years. As a composer he is chiefly known by his adaptation of popular airs for the " Beggar's Opera," for which he also wrote an original overture. He published a " Treatise on Harmony" (1731), and " Ancient Genera of Music " (in vol. xliv. of the " Philosophical Transactions").

Johann Christian Klengel

Johann Christian Klengel, a German painter, born near Dresden, May 5, 1751, died Dec. 19, 1824. The son of a peasant, he was learning bookbinding when he was provided with means to study at the academy of Dresden, and afterward in Italy. In 1802 he became professor in the Dresden academy, and was at the head of a school of landscape painters. He excelled in pictures of harvests, and many of his landscapes are remarkable for fine coloring, though mostly ultra - realistic imitations of nature. Many of his works found purchasers in Russia, and he made engravings from a great number of his paintings.

Johann Christian Poggendorff

Johann Christian Poggendorff, a German natural philosopher, born in Hamburg, Dec. 29,1796. Devoting his attention to pharmacy, chemistry, and natural philosophy, he went to Berlin in 1820, and in 1821 published in the Jsis a treatise " On the Magnetism of the Voltaic Pile," developing the principles of the application of the multiplicator. From 1824 to 1874, when he resigned, he was editor of the An-nalen der Physik und Chemie, which became one of the first scientific journals of Germany. In 1834 he was made professor of natural philosophy in the university of Berlin, and in 1838 member of the academy of sciences. He was engaged with Liebig in editing a "Dictionary of Chemistry."' He wrote Mographisch-Ute-rarisches Handleorterbuch zur Geschichte der exactcn Wissenschaften (2 vols., Leipsic, 1863).

Johann Christian Reil

Johann Christian Reil, a German anatomist, born in East Friesland, Feb. 28, 1759, died in Berlin, Nov. 22, 1813. He studied at the universities of Gottingen and Halle, taking his degree at the latter in 1782. In 1787 he was made professor of clinical medicine at Halle, and in 1810 was called to Berlin on the establishment of the university in that city. His name is perpetuated in connection with the "island of Reil," an isolated cluster of cerebral convolutions, situated at the bottom of the fissure of Sylvius, between the anterior and middle lobes of the cerebrum. Reil conducted for 20 years a periodical entitled Archiv für Physiologie, and left various works on the structure of the nerves, clinical medicine, etc.

Johann Christian Wiihelm August

Johann Christian Wiihelm August, a German theologian, born at Eschenberg, in Gotha, about 1772, died in Coblentz in 1841. He studied at Jena, became professor of philosophy and oriental languages in that university, was appointed professor of theology in 1812 at Bres-lau and in 1819 at Bonn, and some vears later was placed at the head of the ecclesiastical affairs of the Rhenish province of Prussia as director of the consistory of Coblentz. The most important of his numerous works is the Denkwurdigkeiten aus der christlichen Archa-ologie (12 vols. 8vo, Leipsic, 1817 - '31). As an oriental scholar he was eminent. In doctrine he was an orthodox Lutheran.