Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts-Muths

Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts-Muths, founder of the German system of gymnastics (Turn-wesen), born in Quedlinburg, Aug. 9,1759, died at Schnepfenthal, May 21, 1839. In 1779 he entered the university of Halle, where he passed three years in the study of theology. In 1786 he was employed to superintend the gymnastic exercises of the Schnepfenthal institute. He published Gymnastik far die Ju-gend (Schnepfenthal, 1793); Spiele zur Uebung und Erholung des Korpers und Geistes far die Jugend (1796); Kleines Lehrbuch der Schwimm-kunst (Weimar, 1798); Turnbuch fur die Sohne des Vaterlands (Frankfort, 1817); Hand-buch der Geographie fur Lehrer (Leipsic, 1810); and Methodik der Geoegraphie (1835).

Johann Christoph Gottsciied

Johann Christoph Gottsciied, a German author, born at Judithenkirch, near Konigsberg, Feb. 2, 1700, died in Leipsic, Dec. 12, 1766. He was educated at Konigsberg, studied theology, but abandoned it for philosophy and belles-lettres, and was for 32 years professor of logic and metaphysics at Leipsic. He became president of the literary society of Leipsic in 1726, held for a time a sort of literary dictatorship in Germany, placing purity of language and clearness and elegance of style above all other literary merits, while his opponents of the Zurich school, Bodmer and others, contended for originality and genius. He was an indefatigable author, and left tragedies, translations, philosophical treatises, and various controversial and critical works. His chief merit was in contributing to make the German language the sole medium of instruction, by publishing popular manuals and abridgments of scientific and philosophical works in the vernacular tongue.

Johann Conrad Beissel

Johann Conrad Beissel, a German religionist, born at Eberbach in the Palatinate in 1690, died at Ephrata, Lancaster co., Penn., in 1768. He studied theology at Halle, but having joined the Dunkers was obliged to leave Germany, and in 1720 went to Pennsylvania, where he eventually established the new sect of the Seventh-Day Dunkers, or the German Seventh-Day Baptists, and founded a monastic establishment at Ephrata, over which he presided about 30 years. He published hymn books in German and Latin (1766-73), besides his 99 mystical oracles.

Johann David Erdmann Preuss

Johann David Erdmann Preuss, a German historian, born in Landsberg on the Warthe, April 1,1785, died in Berlin, Feb. 24, 1868. He was teacher of history and literature at the Frederick William institute in Berlin for more than 40 years, historiographer of the Prussian dynasty, and biographer of Frederick the Great and editor of his (Euvres (30 vols., Berlin, 1846-'57). Among his later works is Fried-rich der Grosse im siebenjahrigen Kriege und in seinen spateren Regentensorgen (1856).

Johann David Michaelis

Johann David Michaelis, a German Biblical scholar, born in Halle, Feb. 27, 1717, died in Gottingen, Aug. 22, 1791. He graduated at Halle in 1739, and in 1743 began to deliver lectures there on the historical books of the (>ld Testament. In 1745 he was appointed professor of philosophy at Gottingen. For nearly 20 years he edited the Gottinger gelehrte An- His principal works are: a translation of the Hebrew Bible; "Introduction to the New Testament," translated into English by Bishop Marsh; and Das Mosaische Becht (2d ed., 5 vols.. Gottingen, 1776-'80), translated into English by Dr. Alexander Smith, under the title of "Commentaries on the Laws of Moses" (4 vols., London, 1814).