Johann David Passavant

Johann David Passavant, a German art historian, born in Frankfort in 1787, died there, Aug. 12, 1861. He studied art in Paris and Rome, and became inspector of the Stadel museum in his native city, an office which he held till his death. He painted several works of merit, and wrote Rafael von Urbino unci sein Vater Giovanni Santo (3 vols., Leip-sic, 1839-'58); Die christliche Kunst in Spa-nien (1853); Le peintre-graveur (in French, 6 vols., 1860-64); and several other works.

Johann Eduard Erdmann

Johann Eduard Erdmann, a German philosopher, born at Molmar, Livonia, June 13, 1805. He studied theology at the university of Dorpat, afterward attended the lectures of Schleiermacher and Hegel at Berlin for two years, and returning in 1828 to his native place, became pastor and first preacher there. In 1832 he again went to Berlin, and in 1836 was appointed professor of philosophy at Halle, He has published numerous works on psychology, logic, and metaphysics, dreams, the history of philosophy, etc. The most important is Versuch einer wissenschaftlichen Darstellung der Geschichte der neuern Philosophie (3 vols., Leipsic, 1834-'51).

Johann Eduard Steeinle

Johann Eduard Steeinle, a German painter, born in Vienna in 1810. He studied in Munich, worked in Rome under Overbeck's direction, and painted in fresco " The Sermon on the Mount" in the chapel of Rheineek, the "Chorus of Angels " in the Cologne cathedral (1843), and the " Judgment of Solomon" in the Romer at Frankfort (1844). In 1850 he was appointed professor at the Stadel institute. His subsequent works include " Christ as the Good Shepherd" and " The Lost Son".

Johann Friedrich Strunsee

Johann Friedrich Strunsee, count, a Danish statesman, born in Halle, Aug. 5, 1737, executed at Copenhagen, April 28, 1772. He became in 1768 the physician and favorite of King Christian VII., and subsequently of his queen, Carolina Matilda. The king gave himself up to vicious indulgence, while the queen dowager led by Count Bernstorff, and the party of the queen led by Struensee, strove for power. The latter triumphed, and Struensee was appointed prime minister. After instituting important reforms, he became obnoxious on account of his arbitrary measures and his alleged illicit relations with the queen, and his enemies finally procured his ruin. (See Christian VII., and Carolina Matilda).

Johann Friedrieh Christoph Kortum

Johann Friedrieh Christoph Kortum, a German historian, born at Eichhorst, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Feb. 24,1788, died in Heidelberg, June 4, 1858. He was successively a teacher in Fellenberg's school at Hofwyl and in other places, and professor of history at Basel, Bern, and Heidelberg. His principal works are Geschichte des Mittelalters (2 vols., Bern, 1836-'7), Geschichte Griechenlands (3 vols., Heidelberg, 1854), and Geschichte Europas im Uebergange vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit, edited by Reich-lin-Meldegg (2 vols., Leipsic, 1861).