Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm Jerusalem

Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm Jerusalem, a German theologian, born in Osnabriick, Nov. 22, 1709, died Sept. 2,1789. He was appointed in 1740 preacher to Duke Charles of Brunswick, and in 1742 became tutor of the hereditary prince. In 1752 he was placed in charge of a theological seminary established by the Protestants in the former convent of Ridagshausen. He declined the appointment of chancellor of the university of Gottingen. He was one of the best preachers of Germany. The suicide of his son Karl Wilhelm suggested to Goethe the catastrophe of the " Sorrows of Werther."

Johann Georg Hamann

Johann Georg Hamann, a German author, born in Konigsberg, Aug. 27, 1730, died in Munster, June 21, 1788. He was destined for the pulpit, but became a clerk in a mercantile house, and afterward held many small public offices, devoting his leisure to study. He wrote under the nom de plume of "the Magus of the North." His works consist of small essays, and although his style was diffuse and obscure, their merits were recognized by Lessing, Mendelssohn, Herder, and Goethe. Fragments of his writings were published by Cramer, under the title of Sibyllinuche Blatter des Magus aus Norden (1819), and a complete edition by Roth (7 vols., 1821-'5, with a volume of additions and explanations by Wiener, 1843). Hamann's des Magus in Norden Lcben und Schriften, edited by Gildemeister, was published in 5 vols., 1857-'68, and anew edition of his Schriften und Briefen, edited by Petri, in 4 vols., 1872-'4.

Johann Gottfried Gruber

Johann Gottfried Gruber, a German cyclo-paedist, professor of philosophy in the univer-sity of Halle, born in Naumburg, Prussia, Nov. 29, 1774, died in Halle, Aug. 7, 1851. He wrote nearly 30 works on historical, critical, and imaginative subjects, and was joint editor with Erseh of the Allgemeine .Encyklopadie der Wissenschaften und Kunste. (See Ersch.)

Johann Gottlieb Kutzner

Johann Gottlieb Kutzner, a German author, born at Pohlschildern, Feb. 27, 1822, died at Hirschberg, Jan. 5, 1872. He was a teacher in the latter city from 1848, and published, besides other works, Die Lehre vom Menschen (Glogau, 1854); Die Reise seiner koniglichen Hoheit des Prinzen Waldemar von Preussen nach Indien, 1844-'6 (Berlin, 1857); Geogra-phische Bilder (2 vols., 1858); Populare Erd-bildungskunde (Langensalza, 1858); Die Welt-geschichte in zusammenhangenden Einzelbildern (3 vols., Berlin, 1858-9); Der illustrirte Ru-bezahl (Hirschberg, 1859); Der Weltfahrer Dr. Kane (Leipsic, 1860); and Der deutsch-franzo-sische Krieg (2 vols., Leipsic, 1870-'71). He left in manuscript two volumes of Naturlehre.

Johann Gottlob Immaiinel Breitkopf

Johann Gottlob Immaiinel Breitkopf, a German printer, born in Leipsic, Nov. 23, 1719, died there, Jan. 28,1794. His father was a bookseller, printer, and type founder, and brought up his son as such. The latter changed the form of the types then in general use, improved the composition of type metal and the mechanism of printing presses, and endeavored, unsuccessfully, to print music, geographical maps, and portraits with movable type. . He wrote an essay on the history of printing, and labored for several years on a more elaborate work on the same subject, which he did not live to complete; but he published several other works, including one on bibliography and bibliophily (1793). His establishment was continued by his son, Christoph Gottlob, in partnership with Gottfried Christoph Hiirtel, under the firm name of Breitkopf and Hartel.