Johann Jahn

Johann Jahn, a German orientalist, born at Taswitz, Moravia, June 18, 1750, died in Vienna, Aug. 16, 1816. From his youth he was devoted to the study of the eastern languages. Having removed to Vienna, he was appointed professor of dogmatic theology and of oriental literature in the imperial university; but in 1806 he was compelled to resign on account of his heterodox opinions, and was appointed canon of the metropolitan church of St. Stephen. He was the author of various philological and theological works, the most important of which are his Chaldean, Arabic, Syrian, and Hebrew grammars; his Introductio in Libros Sacros Veteris Testamenti (1804; 3d ed., 1825; translated into English by Drs. Turner and "Whittingham, New York, 1827); and his Bi-tluclie Archaologie (2 vols., 1797-1800; translated by Prof. Upham, Andover, 1839).

Johann Jakob Bodmer

Johann Jakob Bodmer, a German scholar and literary reformer, born at Greiffensee, Switzerland, July 9, 1698, died in Zurich, Jan. 2, 1783. In union with some other literary young men, he issued in 1721 a periodical entitled Disburse der Maler, in which many German poets were severely criticised for their servility to French models. He formed a German literary school based on national and ancient standards, in opposition to the French school of Gottsched, with whom he carried on a protracted contest. He wrote poems and dramas, translated "Paradise Lost" and the "Dunciad," and published valuable editions of older German poets. He was for 50 years professor of history at Zurich.

Johann Jakob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot

Johann Jakob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot, a German physician, born in Oarlsruhe, Oct. 14, 1792, died in Dorpat, Jan. 15, 1841. In 1811 and 1812 he travelled in company with Engel-hardt over southern Russia and the Caucasus, and on his return published Eeise in die Krim und Kauhasien (2 vols., Berlin, 1815-'18). In 1821 he was appointed professor of physiology, pathology, and semeiology in the university of Dorpat, travelled in 1824 in the Pyrenees, and in 1829 was the first to make a successful ascent of Mt. Ararat. He wrote Eeise zum Ararat (2 vols., Berlin, 1834; translated by Oooley, London, 1845); a treatise on " Gasom-etry " (Dorpat, 1814); and Ansichten uber die allgemeine Krankheitslehre (Riga, 1821).

Johann Jakob Griesbach

Johann Jakob Griesbach, a German Biblical critic, born at Butzbach, Hesse-Darmstadt, Jan. 4, 1745, died in Jena, March 24, 1812. He was educated at Tubingen, Halle, and Leipsic, and devoted himself to the critical study of the original text of the New Testament. In 1773 he was made extraordinary professor of theology at Halle, and subsequently was elected a professor of divinity at the university of Jena, of which institution he became rector in 1780. The first edition of his Greek Testament was published at Halle in 1775-'7; the second was completed in 1806. Strictly speaking, this was the first critical edition of the New Testament. It was reprinted in London in 1809 and in 1818. An American edition was published in 1808.