Johann Jakob Reiske

Johann Jakob Reiske, a German philologist, born at Zörbig, near Leipsic, Dec. 25, 1716, died in Leipsic, Aug. 14, 1774. He was educated at the university of Leipsic, where he acquired an extensive knowledge of Arabic. He afterward went to Leyden and became a corrector of the press, while his leisure hours were spent in ransacking the oriental treasures of the university library. He also studied medicine, and after remaining in Leyden eight years returned to Leipsic in 1746. He became professor of Arabic in 1748, and in 1758 was made rector of the St. Nicholas school in Leipsic. He edited a large number of Greek and Arabic works, and translated Demosthenes and Aeschines. His life, partly autobiographical, was published by his wife (1785), and his correspondence with Moses Mendelssohn and Lessing appeared at Berlin in 1789.

Johann Joachim Becher

Johann Joachim Becher, a German chemist, born in Spire in 1625, died in London in October, 1682. In spite of adverse circumstances, he acquired a knowledge of medicine, physics, and chemistry, became professor at Mentz, and in 1660 imperial councillor at Vienna and first physician to the elector of Bavaria. He endeavored to promote industry and a spirit of enterprise in Vienna, but incurred the displeasure of the court, and after many unfortunate experiences in various places he ended his life in London. His fame rests on his rhysica Subterranea (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1669), establishing a close relation between chemistry and medical science, and on his founding the theoretical basis of chemistry.

Johann Karl Burckhardt

Johann Karl Burckhardt, a German astronomer, born in Leipsic, April 30, 1773, died in Paris, June 22,1825. He studied at the university of Leipsic, and at Gotha under Zach, by whom he was recommended in 1797 to Lalande at Paris, where he was appointed in 1799 adjunct professor in the bureau of longitudes, and after the death of Lalande, in 1807, became director of the observatory of the military school. He distinguished himself by his calculations of the orbits of comets, translated into German the first two volumes of the Mecanique celeste of Laplace (Berlin, 1801-'2), published many astronomical tables, and wrote valuable memoirs for the academy of sciences, one of which, on the comet of 1770, won a prize. His lunar tables (1812) are considered among the best of their kind.

Johann Karl Gottfried Lowe

Johann Karl Gottfried Lowe, a German composer, born at Lobejun, near Halle, Nov. 30, 1796, died in Kiel, April 20, 1869. He was professor of music at Stettin for about 45 years. He excelled in ballads and songs for one voice, and his oratorios "Gutenberg," "Huss," "The Destruction of Jerusalem," and "The Seven Sleepers" displayed great originality. He was less successful in his operas.

Johann Karl Wilhelm Zail

Johann Karl Wilhelm Zail, a German architect and painter, born at Rodenburg, Aug. 21, 1800, died in Berlin, Aug. 22, 1871. He was educated in Cassel, and spent many years in Italy before and after his appointment in 1829 as professor in the Berlin academy of fine arts. His works include Dieschönsten Ornamente und merkwurdigsten Gemdlde aus Pompeji, Herculanum und Stabicl (Berlin, 1828-'30; 2d series, 1841-'5; 3d series, 1859-'63; each with 100 prints, in 10 parts), and Ornamente aller classischen Kunstepochen (20 parts with 100 colored prints, Berlin, 1832-'9; 3d ed., 1869-'7l).