Johannes Secundus

Johannes Secundus, a Dutch poet, whose true name was Jan Everard, born at the Hague, Nov. 14, 1511, died in Utrecht, Sept. 24, 1536. He gained while young the degree of LL. D., and had also some celebrity as a sculptor and painter. After travelling in Spain and Italy, he accompanied Charles V. on his expedition to Tunis. His poems are written in purely classical Latin, and the Basia ("Kisses," Utrecht, 1539) have been ranked by his admirers with the lyrics of Catullus. They have been repeatedly translated into the principal European languages; and an edition, with translations by different English scholars and with notes, was published by Bohn (London, 1858). His Opera Poetica, consistng of elegies, odes, epigrams, and other poems, were published by his brothers, the poets N. G. and A. M. Everard (Paris, 1541; Gottingen, 1748; Leyden, 1821).

Johannes Secundus #1

See Johannes Seoun-dus.

Johannes Swammerdam

Johannes Swammerdam, a Dutch entomologist, born in Amsterdam in 1637, died about 1680. He studied medicine with his father and at the university of Leyden. He gave considerable attention to the natural history of insects, and made many dissections and microscopical examinations and a large collection of specimens. He obtained leave at Amsterdam to dissect the bodies of those who died in the hospital, and invented the mode for the preparation of hollow organs now usually employed in anatomy. He published a " General History of Insects" (1669), "The Natural History of Bees" (1673), a "History of the Ephemeras" (1675), and other works. His entomological collection was divided at his death and sold in small portions. Boerhaave edited his works and wrote his life. An English translation of his entomological works by T. Floyd was published in 1758.


See Germany, Wines of.


I. Charles Henri Alfred, a French artist, born in Offenbach, Hesse-Darmstadt, March 21, 1800, died in Paris, Dec. 7, 1837.

Having shown considerable talent as an engraver in Paris, in 1831 he attempted painting. His "Shipwreck of Don Juan" and "Cinq Mars " attracted the notice of Louis Philippe, who gave him several commissions, and at his death he was rising into eminence. II. Tony, brother of the preceding, born in Offenbach, Nov. 9, 1803, died in Paris, Aug. 4. 1852. In making designs for vignettes he displayed much talent. His illustrations for "Werther," Moliere's works, "Gil Bias," the "Vicar of "Wakefield," and Sterne's " Sentimental Journey " are well known.

Johatm Bechstein

Johatm Bechstein.Matthaus, a German ornithologist and forester, born in Waltershausen, Saxe-Gotha, July 11,1757, died in 1822. Having visited the most celebrated hunting grounds of Germany, he opened at Kemnate a school of forestry, and became in 1800 the director of the Saxe-Meiningen academy of forestry. His principal works arc Gemeinnutzige Naturge-schichte Deutschlands (4 vols., Leipsic, 1789-'95; 2d ed., 1801-'9), and Naturgeschichte der Stubenvogel (4th ed., Halle, 1840).