John Bachman

John Bachman, an American naturalist and clergyman, born in Dutchess county, N. Y., Feb. 4, 1790. In 1815 he became pastor of the Lutheran church in Charleston, S. C. He was a collaborator of Audubon, and the principal author of the work on the quadrupeds of North America. He has published several other writings, including a "Defence of Luther" (1853), "Characteristics of Genera and Species as applicable to the Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race" (1854), and essays contributed to the " Medical Journal of South Carolina."

John Baldwin Buckstone

John Baldwin Buckstone, an English actor and dramatist, born near London in 1802. At the age of 19 he began his career as an actor in the provincial towns, and in 1823 appeared at the Surrey theatre, London. He afterward played at the Adelphi, the Haymarket, Drury Lane, and the Lyceum, and gained great success in low comedy characters. In 1840 he visited the United States, and made his first appearance at the Park theatre, New York, in his own comedy of " Single Life." Returning to England, he became lessee of the Haymarket theatre in 1852. He has written nearly 200 pieces for the stage, mostly comedies and farces. Among the best known are "Married Life," "Single Life," "Green Bushes," "Flowers of the Forest," "Rough Diamond," "Good for Nothing," "IrishLion," "AlarmingSacrifice," and "Jack Sheppard".

John Ball

John Ball, an English fanatical preacher in the reign of Richard II., executed at Coventry in 1881. He was a priest who had been repeatedly excommunicated for preaching "errors and schisms, and scandals against the pope, the archbishops, bishops, and clergy;" and when Wycliffe began to preach he adopted some of that reformer's doctrines and engrafted them on his own. He joined Wat Tyler's rebellion in 1381, and at Blackheath preached to a hundred thousand of the insurgents a violent democratic sermon on the text,

When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman?

His sermons and letters contributed greatly to spread the insurrection. After the death of Wat he was seized with others of the leaders and either beheaded or hanged.

John Banks

John Banks, an English dramatist of the 17th and 18th centuries; the dates of his birth and death are unknown. He was a London attorney, and left his profession to write for the stage. He published seven tragedies between 1677 and 1696. Of these, "The Unhappy Favorite," founded on the fate of the earl of Essex (beheaded in the reign of Elizabeth), was a stock play for a long time, and was freely used by later playwrights. His dramas were popular, but their literary merit is small.

John Baptist Cramer

John Baptist Cramer, a musical artist and composer, born at Mannheim, Baden, Feb. 24, 1771, died in London, April 16, 1858, where he passed most of his life in great esteem as a composer and as a performer and teacher on the piano. His exercises and studies for the instrument are used in all parts of Europe and in America. His compositions are considered models of simple construction,beauty, and grace.