John Hanning Speke, an English traveller, born in Somersetshire, May 4, 1827, died near Bath, Sept. 15, 18G4. He served as a captain in the British army in the Punjaub under Lord Gough (1849), and subsequently made scientific explorations in the Himalaya. In 1854 he set out with Burton for the Somauli country, where they were attacked and Speke was wounded. He next enlisted in the Turkish army in the Crimea shortly before the close of the war. He gained a wide celebrity by his joint expedition with Burton (1856) to Africa, and the discovery of Lake Tanganyika. (See Burton, Richard Francis.) On July 30, 1858, he discovered alone the Victoria N'yanza lake, and in 1862 he explored its western and northern margin together with Capt. J. W. Grant. (See Nile, and N'yanza.) Capt. Speke was killed by the accidental discharge of a gun while hunting. His principal work is his "Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile " (2 vols., London, 1863).
John Harris, an English clergyman, born at Ugborough, Devonshire, in 1804, died in London, Dec. 21, 1856. He studied divinity in Hoxton Independent college, and became pastor of the Independent church in Epsom. When in 1850 it was determined to consolidate the various Independent colleges in and about the metropolis into one, he was chosen principal of the new institution, called New college, in which he was also professor of theology. While at Epsom he wrote his prize essay against covet-ousness under the title of " Mammon " (1836). Other works written for prizes were "Britannia" (1837), an appeal in aid of the objects of the British and foreign sailors' society, and "The Great Commission" (1842), an essay on Christian missions. His most important works are "The Pre-Adamite Earth" (1847), "Man Primeval" (1849), and "Patriarchy, or the Family, its Constitution and Probation" (1855).
John Haslam, a British physician, born in Edinburgh in 1763, died in London in July, 1844. He was educated at Cambridge, and studied medicine in London, where he became intimate with John and William Hunter. He was for many years apothecary to Bethlehem insane hospital, afterward resided several years in Edinburgh, and returning to London, soon attained a large practice there. In 1827 and 1828 he delivered courses of lectures on the intellectual composition of man. His works are: "Observations on Insanity" (1798); "Illustrations of Madness " (1810); " Considerations on the Moral Management of Insane Persons'1 (1817); "Medical Jurisprudence as it relates to Insanity, according to the Law of England" (1818); " A Letter to the Governors of Bethlehem Hospital' (1818); "Essay on Sound Mind" (1819); and "Lectures on the Intellectual Composition of Man" (1827-'8).
John Hay, an American author, born in Salem, 111., Oct. 8, 1839. He was educated at Brown university, studied law at Springfield, 111., and had just been admitted to the bar when he received the appointment of private secretary to President Lincoln (1861). He remained with the president almost constantly until his assassination in 1865, but served as a staff officer for several months in the field during the civil war. In 1865 he was appointed secretary of legation at Paris, where he remained till 1867, when he was transferred to Vienna. Here he was for some time charge d'affaires; and in 1868 he was again transferred to Madrid as secretary. In 1870 he returned to America, and became attached to the staff of the "New York Tribune." He has written "Pike County Ballads" and "Castilian Days," both published at Boston in 1871.