Joseph II. Ingraham, an American author, born in Portland, Me., in 1809, died in 1866.
After a brief experience of trade he became a teacher near Natchez, and in 1836 published "The South-West, by a Yankee." Subsequently he produced in rapid succession "La-fitte," "Burton, or the Sieges," "Captain Kyd," "The Dancing Feather," and other romances, some of which attained a large circulation. He finally became a minister of the Protestant Episcopal church, and was rector of a parish and of an academy for boys in Holly Springs, Miss. His last works were: "The Prince of the House of David" (1855), "The Pillar of Fire" (1859), and "The Throne of David."
Joseph Isidore Samson, a French actor, born in St. Denis, July 2, 1793, died in March, 1871. He was of humble origin, and was at first a lawyer's clerk and a copyist in a lottery bureau. In 1812 he began to study at the conservatory after performing at a minor theatre. From 1832 to 1863, when he retired, he was connected with the Théâtre Français, being especially distinguished in the comedies of Molière and Beaumarchais. He also wrote vaudevilles and dramas, and L'Art théâtral, a didactic poem, and lectured on dramatic art. He was professor of elocution at the conservatory for upward of 30 years. - See Samson et ses élèves, by Legouvé (Paris, 1875).
Joseph Johaun Yon Littrow, a German astronomer, born at Bischof-Teinitz, Bohemia, March 13, 1781, died in Vienna, Nov. 30, 1840. He studied at Prague, and in 1807 became professor of astronomy at Cracow. The war of 1809 caused a dissolution of the university there, and Littrow accepted an appointment in that of Kazan. In 1816 he became assistant superintendent of the observatory on the Blocksberg in Buda, and some years later professor of astronomy in the university of Vienna and director of the observatory there, the excellence of which is chiefly due to his exertions. He wrote many valuable works on astronomy. - His eldest son, Karl Ludwig, was his assistant from 1831, and after his death succeeded him as director of the observatory.
Joseph Karl Benedict Eichendorff, baron, a German author, born near Ratibor, Upper Silesia, Dec. 10, 1788, died at Neisse, Nov. 26, 1857. He fought as a volunteer in the last campaigns against Napoleon I., and held various offices under the Prussian government, retiring in 1844. He was a representative of the romantic school, wrote many fine poems, novels, and plays, and translated Don Juan Manuel's El conde de Lucanor (Berlin, 1824) and Calde-ron's religious plays (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1846-'55). Among his critico-historical writings are Der deutsche Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts in seinem Verhaltnisse zum Christenthum (1851), and Geschichte der poetischen Litera-tur Deutschlands (1856). The 4th edition of his poetry and of his most popular novel, Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts, appeared in Berlin in 1856.