Lipto (Ger. Liptau), a county of N. Hungary, watered by the Waag, an affluent of the Danube; area, 872 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 79,273, mostly Slavs. The N. E. portions belong to the highest division of the northern Carpathians, known as the Tatra range. The inhabitants are engaged in agriculture and raising of cattle. There are mines of gold, silver, copper, and iron. Capital, Szent-Miklos.
L'Islet, a S. county of Quebec, Canada, bounded S. E. by Maine and N. W. by the St. Lawrence; area, 793 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 13,-517, of whom 13,375 were of French origin or descent. It is traversed by the Grand Trunk railway. Capital, St. Jean Port Joli.
Lissa (Polish Leszno), a town of Prussia, in the province and 42 m. S. S. W. of the city of Posen; pop. in 1871, 10,635, of whom more than one third were Jews. It has four churches, a synagogue, a normal school, a gymnasium, and a large number of manufactories. It was originally a family estate of the counts Leszczynski, with whom in the 16th century the persecuted Bohemian Brethren found a refuge. At the time of the thirty years' war Lissa was the chief seat of the Bohemian Brethren, who had here their most famous school, a seminary, and their archives.
Lissa, an Austrian island in the Adriatic sea, belonging to Dalmatia, 22 m. S. W. of Spalato; area, 38 sq. m.; pop. about 7,000. It has a strongly fortified war port. The Austrian admiral Tegetthoff obtained here, July 20, 1866, a great naval victory over the Italians under Admiral Persano.
Lithia (Gr. ni0os a stone), the oxide of the metal lithium, discovered by Arfwedson in 1817 in the mineral petalite, since found in lepido-lite, spodumene, and in several varieties of mica and feldspar, also in tobacco and mineral waters; symbol Li20, chemical equivalent 30. It is an alkaline substance closely allied to potash and soda. It is separated by igniting the pulverized minerals that contain it with twice their weight of quicklime, treating first with hydrochloric and then with sulphuric acid. The sulphate of lithia, being soluble, is thus separated from the insoluble sulphate of lime, and is afterward decomposed by baryta water, the hydrate of lithia after filtration being re-covered by evaporation; this fuses below redness; but as the alkali powerfully attacks platinum, the capsules employed should be of silver. Lithia forms several salts, which in general are remarkably fusible.
Little Falls, a town and village of Herkimer co., New York, on the Mohawk river, and on the Erie canal and New York Central railroad, 65 m. W. N. W. of Albany; pop. of the town in 1870, 5,612; of the village, 5,387. The village lies partly in the adjoining towns of Manheim and Danube, and is built in a narrow valley, with granite rocks rising on either side to the height of about 500 ft. The river here falls 42 ft. in three fourths of a mile, affording great water power, and the canal passes by a deep cut in the solid rock through a picturesque defile, 2 m. in length. The feeder of the canal crosses the river by an aqueduct, with an arch of 70 ft. span. The village has an extensive trade in cheese, and contains paper mills, woollen factories, flour mills, a cotton mill, manufactories of starch, boots and shoes, axes, etc, a national bank, several public and private schools, two weekly newspapers, and a semi-monthly periodical.