Maria J. Mcintosh, an American authoress, born in Sunbury, Ga., in 1803. She was educated at the Sunbury academy, about 1835 removed to New York, and published in 1841 her first tale, "Blind Alice," under the pseu-donyme of "Aunt Kitty." It was followed by "Jessie Graham," "Florence Arnott," "Conquest and Self-Conquest," " Praise and Principle," and other tales published between 1841 and 1846. In 1846 she published "Two Lives, or to Seem and to Be," and in the succeeding year her stories were collected in a single volume. Among her other works are: " Charms and Counter-Charms " (1848); " Donaldson Manor " (1849); " Woman in America " (1850); " The Lofty and the Lowly " (1853), a picture of life on a southern plantation; "Violet, or the Cross and the Crown" (1856); "Meta Gray" (1858); and "Two Pictures" (1863).
Maria Mitchell, an American astronomer, born in Nantucket, Aug. 1,1818. She derived from her father, who taught a school in Nantucket, a fondness for astronomy, and by her intelligence in the use of instruments and her mathematical attainments soon became an enthusiastic cooperator in his labors. Subsequently she made many careful observations by herself, and devoted much time to the examination of nebulae and the search for comets. On Oct. 1, 1847, she discovered a telescopic comet, for which she received a gold medal from the king of Denmark. She has been employed in observations connected with the coast survey and in compiling the nautical almanac. She is a member of the American association for the advancement of science, and was the first female member of the American academy of arts and sciences. In 1865 she was appointed to the chair of astronomy in Vassar college, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Maria S Cummins, an American novelist, born in Salem, Mass., April 10, 1827, died in Dorchester, Oct. 1, 1866. She was the daughter of Judge David Cummins of Salem. Her first book, " The Lamplighter " (1853), attained such a popularity that 40,000 copies were issued within eight weeks of its publication, and over 100,000 copies were sold in this country alone. It met with success also in England, and two translations of it appeared in France, one entitled Gerty, the other L'allumeur de reverberes.
A German translation was published in Leipsic in 1856. Among her other works are "Mabel Vaughan" (1857), "El Fureidis" (1860), and "Haunted Hearts" (1863). "El Fureidis," a story of the East, contains graphic and truthful pictures of life and scenes in Palestine, which the author had never visited. She was also a frequent contributor to periodicals.
Marian Evans. See Lewes, Marian Evans.
Marianna, a city of Brazil, in the province of Minas Geraes, between the rivers Caruco and Seminario, 170 m. N. by W. of Rio de Janeiro; pop. about 7,000. It is situated at an elevation of 3,000 ft. above the sea, between two mountains, that to the east, Itacolumi, being nearly 6,000 ft. high. There are two large squares, seven fountains, and a bridge of a single arch crossing a torrent which runs through the centre of the town. There are eight churches, including a cathedral, a hospital, court house, and prison. Outside the town are an episcopal palace and a seminary. The climate is temperate and salubrious. Mining and agriculture are the principal occupations of the inhabitants.