Monday (Lat. Lunm Dies, Fr. lundi, Ger. Montag, the day of the moon), the second day of the week, which derives its designation from the Romans, who gave the names of the sun, moon, and five planets to the seven days in modern use.
Mondonedo, a city of Galicia, Spain, in the province and 30 m. N. N. E. of the city of Lugo; pop. about 7,000. It is built in the form of an amphitheatre on the slope of three mountains, one of which is the Monte Infiesta, at the edge of an oval valley, watered by three streams, tributaries of the Masma. The streets are irregular, and the houses mainly of antiquated appearance. The walls are in good preservation. The cathedral, begun in 1221, is a massive Corinthian structure. An ancient castle stands on an eminence, and its batteries command the town. The chief occupations are agriculture, cattle rearing, cotton and linen weaving, and tanning. The French sacked Mondofiedo in 1809.
Monghir, a town of British India, in Bengal, on the right bank of the Ganges, 80 m. E. S. E. of Patna; pop. about 30,000. The numerous temples:give it a tine appearance, and the picturesque and salubrious situation make it a favorite residence for invalids. It contains 16 markets, extending 1 1/2from N. to S. Inferior hardware and firearms are manufactured. The houses are mostly of the poorest description. A rock jutting into the river is a shrine for pilgrims, and adjoining the bathing place was formerly a temple which has been converted into a mosque. The town is of great antiquity, and formerly contained a magnifi-cent palace. The fort, celebrated for its pic-turesqueness. is built on a prominent rock; it is 4,000 ft. long and 3,500 ft. wide, and contains the official and European residences. It was once an important stronghold, but has declined in importance, and is falling to ruins.
Mongol Sovereign Of Kaptchak Batu Khan, died in 1255. On the death of his father, Tushi, about 1224, he received from his grandfather Genghis Khan the rule over the western conquests, E. and W. of the Volga, out of which he subsequently organized the khanate of Kaptchak or of the Golden Horde. On the death of Genghis, in 1227, he acknowledged the supremacy of his uncle Oktai as great khan, and accompanied him in his expedition against China, and at his command swept over Russia, Poland, Hungary, and Dalmatia. He fought Henry, duke of Lower Silesia, at Wahlstadt in 1241, and Bela IV., king of Hungary, on the Sajo, in 1242. Bela fled into Dalmatia, whither Batu followed him and ravaged that territory, but retreated the next year. He held Russia for 10 years.
See Ichneumon, and Lemur.
Monier Williams, an English orientalist, born in Bombay, where his father was surveyor general, in 1819. He graduated at Oxford in 1844, and became professor of Sanskrit at Haileybury college, after the abolition of which in 1858 he superintended oriental studies at Cheltenham for two years. In December, 1860, he was elected Boden Sanskrit professor at Oxford. He has published a "Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, arranged with reference to the Classical Languages of Europe" (1846; 2d ed., Oxford, 1857); an English-Sanskrit dictionary (1851); translations of three Sanskrit dramas (1849-'55); "Original Papers illustrating the History of the Application of the Roman Alphabet to the Languages of India" (1859); "Story of Nala," a Sanskrit poem, with vocabulary and Dean Milman's translation (Oxford, 1860); "Indian Epic Poetry" (1863); "A Sanskrit and English Dictionary" (4to, 1872); "Indian Wisdom" (1875); and several works on the Hindostanee language.