Nievre, a central department of France, comprising the old province of Nivernais, bordering on the departments of Yonne, Cote d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Allier, Cher, and Loiret; area, 2,632 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 339,917. It is intersected from S. E. to N. W. by the mountains of Morvan, which divide the basin of the Seine from that of the Loire, and culminate in Mont Presnay, 3,000 ft. above the sea. The surface N. of this chain is an alternation of rugged hills and deep valleys; but S. of it are extensive plains sloping gently to the Loire. The principal rivers are the Loire, Allier, Yonne, Abron, and Nievre. The climate is mild but moist. The soil is not in general remarkably fertile. The quantity of wine made annually averages about 6,000,000 gallons. Mining, especially of iron and coal, is largely carried on. Woollen cloth, linen, and hardware are manufactured. It is divided into the arrondissements of Château-Chinon, Cla-mecy, Cosne, and Nevers. Capital, Nevers.


See Soodan.

Nijni Novgorod

See Nizhni Novgorod.


See Marquesas Islands.

Nikolaas Berghem

Nikolaas Berghem, a Dutch painter, born in Haarlem in 1624, died Feb. 18, 1683. He was the son of the painter Peter Klaas van Haarlem, and studied under his father, Van Goyen, Weenix, and others. It is said that one day when pursued by his father into Van Goyen's studio, Van Goyen exclaimed to the other pupils Berg hem, "Hide him;" and thus he received his name. His paintings were early in great demand. He was extremely industrious, and his works, most of which are landscapes with groups of figures and cattle, are careful in finish, effective in composition, and harmonious in coloring. The atmospheric effects are admirable. There are 11 of his pictures in the Louvre, 18 in the museum of the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, and others in England, at Amsterdam, Vienna, and elsewhere. He left a great number of pictures and a number of exquisite drawings and etchings. His works bring high prices.

Nikolaas Godfried Van Kampen

Nikolaas Godfried Van Kampen, a Dutch historian, born in Haarlem, May 15, 1776, died March 14, 1839. As a youth he acquired in a book store, where he was employed, a knowledge of literature, and mastered several languages. He then became teacher of German, editor of the "Leyden Gazette," and finally professor of the Dutch language, literature, and history, first at the university, and then at the athenaeum in Leyden. He was the author of numerous works, many of which, translated into.German, have a European reputation.

Nikolai Baranoff

Nikolai Baranoff, a deaf-mute Russian painter, born in Esthonia in 1810. He studied in Berlin at the expense of the czar, and has produced genre and historical pictures.

Nikolai Greth

Nikolai Greth, a Russian author, born in St. Petersburg, Aug. 14, 1787, died there, Jan. 24, 1867. He acquired eminence as a teacher, and became councillor of state in 1829, and privy councillor in 1862. His best known work is a manual of Russian literature (4 vols., St. Petersburg, 1819-22).