Oppenheim, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse, on the Rhine, 10 m. S. by E. of Mentz; pop. in 1871, 2,926. It occupies the site of an ancient Roman castle, and at one time was one of the most important cities of the Rhine; but it was almost entirely destroyed by the French in 1689. The Protestant St. Catharine's church, one of the most magnificent Gothic edifices of Germany, and especially celebrated for its windows, is in ruins, excepting the E. part, which was restored in 1843. Nierstein and other places famous for excellent vintages are in the vicinity.


Oppian, a Greek poet, born in Cilicia, flourished about A. D. 180. He belonged to a distinguished family. His father having been banished to the island of Melita, Oppian accompanied him, and there wrote his Halieu-tica, a poem on fishing, in 3,500 verses. A poem entitled Cynegetica, "On Hunting," attributed to him, modern critics suppose to have been written by another person of the same name. The best edition of the two is that of Schneider (Strasburg, 1776).


See Cactus.

Or Braganza Braganca

Or' Braganza Braganca, a town of Portugal, capital of the province of Tras-os-Montes, 103 m. N. E. of Oporto; pop. in 1864, 5,101. It has the ruins of an ancient castle, one of the finest feudal remains in Portugal. It is the see of a bishop, and has some manufactories of silks and velvets. Braganca has given its name to the present royal family of Portugal.

Or Camerones Cameroons

Or' Camerones Cameroons, a river of Upper Guinea, on the W. coast of Africa. It enters the bight of Biafra by an estuary 20 m. wide, in which are several large islands. Around its mouth the shores are overgrown with mangroves. For about 40 m. above this it preserves an average breadth of 400 yards, and at a point 90 m. distant from the sea it forms a cataract. During the rainy season it is navigable by vessels of any size, but in the dry season its depth is only from 2 to 20 ft. Its total length is unknown. On one of the islands at its mouth is the town of Cameroons, the centre of an important commerce, importing salt, powder, cloths, hats, and arms, and exporting gum, pepper, ivory, and palm oil.

Orange River

See Cape Colony.

Orange River Republic

See Boers.


Orangeburg, a S. W. county of South Carolina, between the Santee and Congaree rivers on the N. E. and the Edisto on the S. W., drained by the North Edisto and other streams; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,805, of whom 11,150 were colored. The surface is uneven; the soil is moderately fertile. It is traversed by the South Carolina railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,286 bushels of wheat, 203,739 of Indian corn, 31,846 of sweet potatoes, 6,449 bales of cotton, and 952,378 lbs. of rice. There were 1,527 horses, 1,077 mules and asses, 2,521 milch cows, 5,754 other cattle, 2,973 sheep, and 15,009 swine. Capital, Orangeburg Court House.