Oskar Ferdinand Peschel

Oskar Ferdinand Peschel, a German geographer, born in Dresden, March 17, 1826. He studied law in Leipsic and Heidelberg, but accepted a position on the editorial staff of the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung, and in 1854 took charge of the Ausland. In April, 1871, he became professor of geography in Leipsic. Among his publications are: Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen (Stuttgart, 1858); Geschichte der Erdkunde bis anf Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Bitter (Munich, 1865); Neue Probleme der vergleichenden Erdkunde (Leipsic, 1870); and VbllcerTcunde (1874).

Osman

See Othman.

Osnaburg

See Osnabruck.

Osprey

See Fish Hawk.

Ossuna, Or Osuna

See Osuna.

Osteo-Biyelitis

Osteo-Biyelitis, inflammation of the lining; membrane of the bony cavities, or the endos-teum, often called simply endostitis, the marrow being more or less affected. Endostitis is a more serious affection than periostitis; it is more liable to be accompanied by pyaamia, and is a common cause of death in cases of amputation and resection of the bones. When osteo-myelitis causes death and separation of a portion of bone, it constitutes one form (internal) of necrosis. The symptoms are those of inflammation of bone in general: deep, ach-ing, intense pain, high fever and constitutional disturbance, increased temperature, rigors, and hectic. The treatment is of the same nature as that for necrosis, and is either expectant or active, or both. As it generally follows fracture or amputation, the parts may be reached, and the sequestrum (separated bone) may be removed, when detachment has fully taken place. (See Amputation, and Necrosis).

Osteolepis

See Ganoids.

Osteology

See Anatomy, and Bone.

Ostiaks

See Finns, vol. vii., p. 207.

Ostracion

See Trunk Fish.

Ostrogoths

See (Joins.

Ostrolenka

Ostrolenka, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of Lomza, on the Narew, here crossed by a wooden bridge, 60 m. X. N. E. of Warsaw; pop. in 1867, 3,466. On Feb. 16, 1807, the French general Savary defeated here the Russians under Essen; and on May 26, 1831, the Russians under Diebitsch, in a protracted and bloody combat, were victorious over the Poles commanded by Skrzynecki.

Oswald Heer

Oswald Heer, a Swiss naturalist, born at Glarus, Aug. 31, 1819. He went to Zurich in 1832, and has been engaged there for more than 30 years as professor of botany and entomology, and as director of the botanical garden, which he helped to establish, He was likewise for upward of 20 years a member of the great council of Zurich, He has published Die Kafer der Schweiz (2 vols., Solothurn, 1837-'40); Fauna Coleopterorum Helvetica (3 vols., Zurich, 1839-'41); Die Insektenfauna der Tertiargebilde von Oeningen und von Ro-doboj in Kroatien (3 vols., Leipsic, 1847-'53); Flora tertiaria Helvetia) (3 vols., Winterthur, 1854-'6); Die Pflanzen der Pfahlbauten (Zurich, 1805); Die Urwelt der Schweiz (1809; French translation by Demole, Geneva and Basel, 1872); and Die fossile Flora der Po-larlander (2 vols., Winterthur, 186l-'7).