See Civil Law, vol. iv., p. 623.


See Jury, vol. ix., p. 724.


See Goa, New.


Panini, a Sanskrit grammarian, probably of the 4th century B. 0., according to a passage in Yedic literature which speaks of him as a contemporary of King Nanda. Little is known of his history, for the biography found in the Kathdsaritsdyancu of the 12th century bears every mark of a fanciful composition. Of his celebrated grammar Max Mullersays: "It is the perfection of a merely empirical analysis of language, unsurpassed, nay, even unapproached, by anything in the grammatical literature of other nations." See Max Milller, " History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature " (London, 1859); Goldstiicker, "Panini, his Place in Sanskrit Literature" (London, 1860); and Benfey, Ge-schichte der Sprachwissenschaft (Munich, 1869).


See Goa, New.

Panline Virginie Dejazet

Panline Virginie Dejazet, a French actress, born in Paris, Aug. 30, 1798, died there in September, 1873. She began her career at the age of five, in the theatre des Capucines, and continued on the stage in Paris and the provinces till 1868. In March, 1869, the emperor Napoleon granted her a pension of 2,000 francs. She excelled in the personification of soubrettes and in male attire; and won perhaps her most brilliant laurels in Les premieres armes de Richelieu and in Bonaparte a Brienne. What added powerfully to the interest which she created was her manner of singing the songs interspersed in the plays.


See Palermo.


See Violet.


See Philosophy.


See Kertch.


Pantput, a town of British India, in the district and 60 m. N. N. W. of Delhi; pop. about 23,000. It is in a fertile, well irrigated tract, is surrounded by an irregular line of walls, and has considerable trade. It contains many temples and several large and animated caravansaries. The adjacent plain has been the scene of several battles, the most important of which are the rout of Ibrahim by Baber in April, 1526, and the great battle between the Afghans and Mahrattas, in January, 1761, in which the latter were defeated and the way was prepared for British supremacy. (See India, vol. ix., p. 209).

Paolo Boccone

Paolo Boccone, afterward Silvio, a Sicilian naturalist, born at Palermo, April 24, 1633, died Dec. 22, 1704. He was a Cistercian monk, and to study natural history visited Italy, France, England, Germany, and many other countries. He left a great number of works, the most important of which is his Icones et Descriptiones variarum Plantarum Siciliae Melitae, Gallia, et Italia (4to, Lyons and Ox-ford, 1674).

Paolo Federigo Sclopis De Salerano

Paolo Federigo Sclopis De Salerano, count, an Italian jurist, born in Turin in 1798. He studied law at the university of Turin, distinguished himself in drawing up the Sardinian civil code of 1837 and in other departments of jurisprudence, became in 1848 minister of justice and ecclesiastical affairs, and presided over the committee for framing more liberal laws for the press; but he soon exchanged his place in the cabinet for the chamber of deputies. At the close of 1849 he took his seat in the senate, of which he was president till 1861, and subsequently held the same office in the senate of Italy till 1864. In 1872 he was appointed by Victor Emanuel arbitrator at Geneva on the part of Italy under the treaty of Washington, and he was made president of the court of arbitration. The American government sent him a service of silver plate in 1874. His principal work is a history of Italian legislation (3 vols., Turin, 1840-'57).