Penzance, a seaport and the most westerly town of England, on Mount's bay, Cornwall, 24 m. S. W. of Truro and 9 m. E. N. E. of Land's End; pop. in 1871, 10,406. It stands on a beautiful shore finely curved, and surrounded by rocky eminences. It has nine churches and several fine public buildings, the hall and museum of the Cornwall geological society, and a pier 600 ft. long with a lighthouse at its extremity. Tin and copper, which abound in the neighborhood, are exported in large quantities, as well as china clay and pilchards. The climate is remarkably mild, and numerous invalids resort thither.
Peon, a Spanish word signifying a day laborer. In Spanish America it is applied especially to Indian laborers. By the civil law under the Spanish colonial system, and by special statute in some countries, peons are compelled to work for their employers, provided they are in debt to the latter, until the debt is paid. It is alleged that many proprietors, by enticing the peons in their employment into needless expenditures, and by selling them goods and advancing them money, contrive to keep them hopelessly in debt and in a consequent state of bondage. The creditor, however, has no power over the wife and children of the peon, nor can the latter be sold like a slave. Peons in New Mexico formerly received wages at the rate of about $5 a month; but the system of peonage there was abolished by act of congress, March 2, 1867, and it has also been abolished in the Argentine Republic and one or two other South American countries.
See Black Gum.
See Constantinople, vol. v., p. 277.
Peraea (Gr. , situated beyond), the classical name of the division of Palestine lying E. of the Jordan. The term thus corresponded to the 'eber ha-Yarden (beyond the Jordan) of the Hebrew Scriptures; but in a narrower sense it was applied to that portion of the trans-Jordanic territory which lay between the Jabbok on the north and the Arnon on the south. (See Palestine, vol. xiii., p. 8).
Percival Pott, an English surgeon, born in London in 1713, died in 1788. He was connected with St. Bartholomew's hospital, first as assistant surgeon, and in 1749 as one of the principal surgeons. He was particularly distinguished by his valuable and original researches upon angular curvature of the spine, caused by disease and absorption of the bodies of the vertebrae, since known by the name of " Pott's disease." His principal works are: a " Treatise on Ruptures" (London, 1756); "An Account of a particular kind of Rupture, the Hernia Congenita" (1757); "Observations on Fistula Lachrymalis" (1758); "Observations on the Nature and Consequences of "Wounds and Contusions of the Head," etc. (1760); " General Remarks on Fractures and Dislocations" (1768); "On the Cure of Hydrocele by Seton" (1772); " Remarks on that kind of Palsy of the Limbs which attends Curvature of the Spine" (1779); and "Further Remarks" on the same subject (1783).