See Massachusetts Indians.

Pfafers, Or Pfeffers

Pfafers, Or Pfeffers, a watering place of Switzerland, in the canton of St. Gall, 2 m. S. of Ragatz. It is more than 2,000 ft. above the sea, and has the so-called indifferent thermal springs, efficacious in rheumatism and nervous diseases. The springs were discovered in 1038. The gorge of the Tamina, leading from the village to the springs, is one of the most picturesque spots in the world.


Pfalzbijrg (Fr. Phalsbourg), a town of the German Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine, included before 1871 in the French department of Meurthe, 25 m. N. W. of Strasburg; pop. about 4,300. It occupies a strong position on the W. declivity of the Vosges, commanding one of their passes, and under French rule was a fortress of the second class. In the late war it maintained a gallant defence against the Germans for four months under its commander Taillant, finally surrendering on Dec. 12, 1870. The number of prisoners was 1,900. In 1872 the dismantlement of the town was begun, the new frontiers having greatly diminished its strategical importance.


Pforzheim, a town of Baden, at the confluence of the Nagold and the Enz, and at the foot of the Black Forest, 16 m. S. E. of Carls-ruhe; pop. in 1871, 19,801. It has an ancient castle, the church of which contains the tombs and monuments of members of the grand-ducal family, a deaf and dumb institution, an insane asylum, an orphan asylum, and poorhouses. Its manufactures include jewelry, cloth, chemicals, oil, paper, and leather.


See Siberia.

Phaedo, Or Phadon

Phaedo, Or Phadon, a Greek philosopher, who flourished in the early part of the 4th century B. 0. He was a native of Elis and of noble birth, but becoming a prisoner of war, was brought to Athens and sold as a slave. Socrates obtained his release, and Plato introduces him in his dialogue on the death of Socrates, which bears the name of Phsedo. He finally returned to Elis and became the founder of the Elean school of philosophy.


Phaedra, in Greek legends, the wife of Theseus and daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and of Pasiphae, and sister of Ariadne. Her stepson Hippolytus, with whom she had fallen in love, refusing to gratify her passion, she accused him to his father of an attempt upon her honor. Theseus hereupon cursed his son, and asked Neptune to destroy him, which prayer the god complied with. When the death of Hippolytus became known to her, Phaedra confessed her guilt and hanged herself, or according to some was put to death by her husband. The story of Phsedra was the subject of tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides, now lost. Racine also wrote a tragedy on it.


Phaedrus, a Latin fabulist of the Augustan age. He was originally a slave, and was brought from Thrace or Macedonia to Rome, where he was freed by Augustus. He wrote 97 fables in iambic verse, distributed in five books, and says in the prologue to the first book that he has simply turned the matter of AEsop's fables into poetry; but in the prologue of the fifth book he says he often used the name of AEsop only to recommend his verses. The first edition was printed by P. Pithou (12mo, 1596), from a manuscript supposed to be of the 10th century. Later editions are by Orelli (Zurich, 1831), Dressier (Leipsic, 1838), 0. Eichert (Hanover, 1865), and L. Muller (Leipsic, 1868).