Raratonga, Or Rarotonga

See Cook's Islands.


Raritan, a river of New Jersey, formed by the confluence in Somerset co. of two branches, both having their sources in the mountains of Morris co.; the North branch flows mainly due S., and the South branch makes a curve S. W. through Hunterdon co., and then forms a circuit to the north. From the junction the course of the Raritan is nearly E. It passes by New Brunswick, whence it is navigable to Raritan bay, which it enters at Perth Amboy. The main stream is about 33 m. long.

Rarl Czerny

Rarl Czerny, a German composer, born in Vienna, Feb. 21, 1791, died there, July 15, 1857. He received his musical instruction from his father, a teacher of the piano, appeared at the age of 9 in a concert, and became acquainted with Beethoven and afterward with dementi. He pursued the profession of his father from 1805 to 1835, and visited London in 1836. Among his pupils are Liszt, Dohler, and other distinguished artists. He wrote an immense number of compositions, and several theoretical works, of which the "Practical School of Composition" (English and German, 3 parts, London and Bonn, 1849), and the Umriss der ganzen Musilcgeschichte (Mentz, 1851), are the most remarkable.


Rascia, in the middle ages, the name of southern Servia, derived from Rasa (now Novi-Bazar), on the Rashka, and subsequently extended to the whole of the Servian kingdom. The name Rascians, variously modified, is still used in Hungary, Roumania, and other countries, to designate various Serb populations living outside of Servia.


See Solomon ben Isaac.

Raskolniks, Or Roskolniks

Raskolniks, Or Roskolniks, the principal class of Russian dissidents. See Russia.


See Civet.


See Rattazzi.


Ratibor, a town of Prussian Silesia, on the Oder, which is here navigable, 90 m. S. E. of Breslau; pop. in 1871, 15,323, chiefly Roman Catholics. It has one Protestant and several Catholic churches, and a Protestant gymnasium attended by about 500 students. The principal trade is in grain and timber; tobacco is manufactured. It was formerly the capital of a principality, which belonged to the house of Hapsburg from 1532 to 1742, when it was taken by the Prussians. From 1822 to 1834 it belonged with its castle (burned in 1858) and domains to the landgrave Victor Amadeus of Hesse-Rothenburg, and it is now held as a dukedom by Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Wal-denburg-Schillingsfürst.

Rational Grange

Rational Grange ,. See Husbandry, Patrons of.


See Palm, vol. xiii., p. 14.


Ravee, a river of India, an eastern affluent of the Chenaub, and one of the five rivers to which the Punjaub owes its name. It rises in the Mid-Himalaya range, in the state of Kooloo, W. of the Rotang pass, about lat. 32° 30' N., lon. 77° E., at an elevation of about 16,000 ft. It flows S. W. about 450 m., passing the towns of Chamba, Lahore, and Tulumba. It is the main feeder of the great Baree doab canal. The railway from Lahore to Mooltan, about 40 m. below its junction with the Chenaub, almost skirts its left bank. Its width varies between 50 and 500 yards, and it attains when fullest in some places a depth of 12 ft., but it is generally fordable three fourths of the year. Its ancient Sanskrit name was Iravati, which is still preserved in the local dialect as Iraotee. Ancient Greek writers call it the Hydraotes or Hyarotis, while Ptolemy gives it the name of Adris.